House and Senate committees that appropriate or allocate specific funding levels to each government program or activity
Define Authorizing Committees
House and Senate committees that develop or authorize particular policies or programs through legislations
Define Conference Committees
Committees composed of members of the House and Senate charged to resolve differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill
Define Joint Committees
Congressional committees mad up of members of both the House and the Senate and assigned to study a particular topic.
Define Select Committees
Temporary committees of the Congress that go out of business once they complete their work or at the end of each Congress unless specifically renewed.
Define Standing Committees
Permanent committees of the Congress enjoying fixed jurisdiction and continuing automatically from one Congress to the next.
Define Specialization norm
The norm that encourages Congress members to specialize and develop expertise in the subject matter covered by their committee assignments.
Define Reciprocity norm
Congressional norm promising that if members respect the views and expertise of members of other committees , their committee expertise will be respected as well.
Define Seniority Norm
The norm that holds tha the member of a congressional committee with the longest continuous service on the committee shall be its chair.
A view of representation that says representation should listen to their constituents but use their own expertise and judgment to make decisions about public issues
A view of representation that sees the representatives principal role as reflecting the view and protecting the interests of his or her own constituents.
A view of representation that sees representatives following constituent opinion when that is clear and his or her own judgment or political interest when constituency opinion is amorphous or divided
Define legislative supremacy ( Federalist 48)
The idea that the lawmaking authority in government should be supreme over the executive and judicial powers
The Specifically listed or enumerated powers of the Congress found in Article 1 section 8 of the Constitution.
Congressional powers not specifically mentioned among the enumerated powers but which are reasonable and necessary to accomplish an enumerated end or activity
Powers accruing to all sovereign nations, whether or not specified in the Constitution, allowing executives to take all actions require to defend the nation and protect its interest.
What is the Pendleton Act
it was ts the original legislation establishing the civil service system back in 1883
What is the Administrative Procedures Act
Passed in 1946 it is The single most important attempt by Congress to define the nature and process of bureaucratic decision making
Define Rule Making
Process of defining rules or standards that apply uniformly to classes of individuals, events, or activities.
Define Administrative Adjudication
Procedures designed to allow resolution of complex issues based on specific facts rather than general rules.
Define Civil Code
Legal tradition that envisions a complete and fully articulated legal system based on clear statutes that lay out legal principles and commands in plain language that citizens can understand and obey.
Define Common Law
judge made law, as opposed to fa fully integrated legal code, developed over time as judges consider particular legal disputes and then future judges cite earlier decisions in resolving similar issues.
A judicial decisions that serves as a rule or guide for deciding later cases of a similar nature.
Define Criminal Law
Prohibits certain actions and prescribes penalties for those who engage in the prohibited conduct
Define Civil Law
Law dealing primarily with relation between individuals, and organizations, as in marriage and family law, contracts, and property. Violations result more in judgments and fines than punishment as such.
Define Original Jurisdiction
Mandatory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as laid out in Article III of the Constitution
Define Appellate Jurisdiction
Substantive area in which a higher court may hear cases appealed from a lower court
Judiciary Act of 1789
Originating act for the federal judiciary passed by the first Congress
Power of any federal court to hold any law or official act based on law to be unenforceable because it is in conflict with the Constitution.
Federal Election Camaign Act
Campaign reform legislation passed in 1971 the FCC is a five-member commission empowered to regulate the media in the public interest
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
Commonly known as McCain-Feingold the 2002 BCRA was the first major revision of camaign finance laws since the early 1970's
Buckley v Valeo
This decision declared provisions of the 1974 Federal Election Campaign Act limiting the amount that a candidate could contribute to their own campaign to be an unconstitutional limitation on free speech.
McConnell Vs. FEC
The Supreme Court upheld all major elements of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, including those permitting regulation of "soft money" and 'Issue ads"