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need for achievement
need for affiliation
need for power
Carol Dweck's Self-Theory of Motivation
relates to locus of control, people who assume they have control over what happens to them (internal). (external) in locus of control, lives controlled by luck or fate.
Dweck Theory Cont.
people can conform one of two beliefs, those who's intelligence is fixed and unchangeable are external locus, might give up easily learned helplessness, they stop trying. If changeable and shaped into experiences and effort are typically internal locus. they develop strategies to get task done.
Errors should not be viewed as failures but a way to improve. "constructive criticism when linked with praise will be better influence on child's self-esteem.
an unlearned motive that causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity.
theory of motivation which people are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.
- the relationship between task performance and arousal.
- moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance. if too high or low, performance not as good.
- easy tasks- high to moderate arousal
- hard tasks- low to moderate arousal
a person who needs more arousal, more complex and varied sensory experiences than most people.
are things that attract or lure people into action. same thing as motive.
theory of motivation where as behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties.
incentive theory that assumes actions of humans cannot always be predicted or understood without understanding, beliefs, values and the importance the person attaches to it at that moment.
organism demonstrates remembering what happened in past, anticipating future events, adjusting their actions according the the cognitive expectancies.
Humanistic Approach Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (self-actualization)
humans must fulfill the more basic needs, such as physical and security needs, before being able to fulfill self-actualization and transcendence.
according to Maslow, times in a person's life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
- 1. physiological, survival needs
- 1. safety needs
- 3. belongingness and love needs
- 4. esteem needs
- 5. cognitive needs
- 6. aesthetic needs
- 7. self-actualization
- 8. transcendence
In the ___ approach, people are said to have an optimal level of tension?
Which motivation ties to basic principles of learning and the concept of reinforcement?
Jamal gets new toy with every good grade, he is receiving ____?
Physiological Components of Hunger
- insulin- hormone secreted by pancreas to control levels of fat, proteins and carbs in body reducing glucose in blood.
- glucagons- hormones secreted by pancreas to control levels of fats, proteins and cars in body by increasing glucose in blood
controls many kinds of motivational stimuli, including hunger, and it influences the pituitary.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)
- may be involved in stopping the eating response when glucose levels go up. this is located toward bottom and center f the hypothalamus.
- when damaged, organism continue to eat until obesity.
located on the side of the hypothalamus seemed to be influenced when insulin levels go up, to stop eating. when damaged the organism would eventually starve.
Weight Set Point
Nisbett believed the hypothalamus affects a particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain.
Basal Metabolic Rate
the rate in which one burns energy when resting.
Social Components of Eating "convention"
people often eat, even when not hungry. a large part of this is the result of classical conditioning.
20% over ideal body weight. hereditary factors main influence, there are several set of genes, and some chromosomes. hormone leptin controls appetite.
a hormone that when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food.
15% below ideal body weight. hormone secretion becomes abnormal, especially in thyroid and adrenal glands. is classified as a clinical (mental) disorder.
a person develops cycle of "binging" or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and "purging" induces vomiting. psychological issues of "control" have been cited in this disorder, the serotonin.
the "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings.
Physiology of Emotion
- the heart rate increases.
- breathing becomes rapid.
- the pupils dilate.
- the mouth becomes dry.
a small part of the brain within the limbic system on each side of the brain associated with fear. when damaged the organism doesn't experience fear.
vary from culture to culture, are learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.
cognitive element of retrieving memories of previous similar experiences, perceiving the context of the emotion, and coming up with a label.
Common Sense Theory of Emotions
- leads to emotion,
- which leads to body arousal (ANS)
- "mad dog causes me fear, therefor i shake"
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
- leads to ANS,
- leads to emotion
- "i'm mad, because my face is red"
automatic nervous system
- leads to brain activity,
- leads to ANS and conscious response
- the physiological and emotion occur at same time
Cognitive Arousal Theory
emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of the arousal based on the cues from environment must occur before the emotion is experienced.
Facial Feedback Theory
an emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion.
Lazarusis Cognitive-Mediational Theory
using cognitive thinking, the most important aspect of any emotional experience is how the person interprets. or appraises the stimulus that causes the emotional reaction.
Lazarus's Theory Example
a stimulus causes an immediate appraisal, the dog snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous.