Two levels of government shared fundamental powers
State governments were supreme in some matters, national gov in others.
Delegates called this new form of gov a confederation-alliance
Created no separate executive department to carry out and enforce the acts of Congress and no national court system
Land Ordinance of 1785/ Northwest ordinance of 1787
Land O.:established a plan for surveying the land
Nw ordinance: procedure for dividing land into territories
*Confederation's greatest achievements*
Confederation's Economic/Political problems
Country lacked unity, each state functioned independently
Didnt recognize difference in population among states
Most serious economic problem: Huge debt that congress amassed during revolutionary war.
Lacked power to tax, requested tariff to pay off foeign loans rejected
Had no control over interstate or foriegn trade
Struggle between creditors
Lack of support from states for national concerns
American's fear of giving national gov too much power resulted in gov that lacked sufficient power to deal with nation's problems
Farmer's protest, caused panic and dismay throughout nation
Every state had debt-ridden farmers
Called for three-fifths of a state's slaves to be counted as population
Settled political issue but not economic issue of slavery
Offered a two-house Congress to satisfy both small and big states
Size of population would determine its representation in the House of Representatives, or lower house
Voters of each state chose members of the House
Sate legislature chose members of Senate
Pleased those who favored government, those who defended states' rights as it preserved power of state legislatures
Separation Of Powers
Legislative Branch: Makes laws
Executive Branch: Carries out laws
Judicial Branch: interprets laws
Checks and Balances: Prevents one branch from dominating others
Federalism: Divided power between the national gov and state gov
Federalist Vs. Anti-Federalist
Federalist: Supporters of the Constitution, favored balance of powers between states and national government.(merchants, laborers,small states, weak economies)
Anti-Federalists: Opposed constitution/ having such a strong central government.(rural area, afaraid of tax burden from strong government.
Federalists insisted division of powers/checks and balances would protect Americans from tyranny of centralized authority
Anti-Feds countered with list of possible abuses by strong central government.
Argument centered on Constitution's lack of protection for individual rights.
A series of 85 essays defending the Constitution
Federalist Leaders" Alex Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
Bill of Rights
First 8 for personal liberties
Ninth and Tenth for limits on powers of federal government.
Antifederalists argues that since Constitution weakened sates, people needed a national Bill of Rights. Gurarantee people would have freedom of speech, religion,press.
Believed in strong central government
Commerce and industry were keys to a strong nation
Favored society of farmer-citizens
Economic Plan: establish a banking system
American delegation planned to meet with french foreign minister, Instead directory sent three officials Adams in report to congress called "X,Y,Z". Demanded 250,000 for seeing Talleyrand.
Provoked a wave of anti-French feeling at home
Undeclared naval war raged between France and United States
Alien and Sedition Acts
To counter what they saw as growing threat against gov, the Federalists pushed through Congress four measures ; Alien and Sedition Acts.
Three measures,Alien Acts, allowed president to deport or jail any alien considered undersirable
Fourth measure, the Sedition Act, set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder operation of government or expressing "false,scandalous, and malicious statements" against government.
States have the right to nullify, or consider void, any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutional.
Included all the land drained by the western tributaries of the
Mississippi River, the size of the United States more than doubled
Jefferson bought Lousiana off spain
It was controversial because he did it out of nowhere without people's consent when he was a strict constitutionalist
This was unconstitutional
Marbury VS Madison
Marbury never recieved his official papers, Madison was Jefferson's sec. of state, whose duty it was to deliever the papers
Judiciary Act of 1789 required Supreme Court to order that papers be delivered, Marbury sued to enforce this provision.
Justice Marshall decided provision of the act was unconstitutional because the Constitution did not empower Supreme Court to issue such orders.
Judicial Review: the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
Republic: a government in which citizens rule through their elected representatives
Republicanism: the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people.
Disagreement over role of national government.
What three questions did delegates have to answer?
1) Representation by population or state?
2) Supreme power: Can it be divided?
3) Western Lands: who gets them?
Madisons's Virginia Plan
Propesed a bicameral, or two-house, legislature, with membership based on each state's population.
The voters would elect members of the lower house, who would then elect members of the upper house.
New Jersey Plan
Proposed a single-house congress in which each state had an equal voice
Powers granted to the national government by the Constitution
Include powers such as control of foriegn affairs,providing national defense, regulation trade between states and coining money.
Powers kept by the states
Include providing and supervising education, establishing marriage laws, regulating trade within a state
Order of Checks and Balances
Legislative checks Executive-
Executive checks Judicial-
Judicial checks Legislative-
Each state would choose a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives the state had in Congress. The group of electors chosen by the states (e.c), would cast ballots for candidates.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal Court System,headed by Supreme court
Type of additional courts and how many? What would happen if federal court decisions conflicted with state laws? Judiciary Act answered these questions.
To head departments of the executive branch, Washington chose Thomas jefferson(sec.o.state) Alexander Hamilton(sec.o.treasury), and Henry Knox(sec.o.war). Edmund randolph attorny general
Department heads became known as president's chief advisors,or Cabinet
Bank Of United States
Would be funded by both federal government and private investors
Would issue paper money and handle tax receipts and other government funds
Madison was against this plan , thought it was unconstitutional
Hamilton used ELASTIC CLAUSE ,to carry out enumerated powers "do what is necessary and proper"
Hamilton convinced Washington and majority of congress to accept his views, federal gov. established Bank of U.S
Ancestors of Today's Democratic Party
Import tax on goods produced in Europe
Meant to encourage American production, brought in a great deal of revenue.
Hamilton wanted more, excise tax, on whiskey
Whiskey was main source of cash for frontier farmers-furious.
Support neither side in conflict
Placing the interests of one region over those of the nation as a whole
Napoleon decided to exclude British goods from Europe
In turn G.B decided that the best way of attacking Napoleon's Europe was to blockade it, or seal up its ports and prevent ships from entering or leaving
The practice of seizing Americans at sea and "impressing",or drafting them into the British Navy
Ban on exporting products to other countries
Jefferson believed Embargo Act of 1807 would hurt Britain and other European powers and force them to honor American neutrality
Embargo hurt America more than Britain and congress lifted ban on foriegn trade
Treaty of Ghent
Declared armistice, or end to fighting
Causes of War of 1812
Impressment, seizing americans
SPARK: the cherokee ship was blown up and the sailors were taken prisoner by british ships
Madison wanted to unite the different regions of the country adn create a stron stable economy, self-sufficent. Three points