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Articles of Confederation
- Two levels of government shared fundamental powers
- State governments were supreme in some matters, national gov in others.
- Delegates called this new form of gov a confederation-alliance
- Created no separate executive department to carry out and enforce the acts of Congress and no national court system
Land Ordinance of 1785/ Northwest ordinance of 1787
- Land O.:established a plan for surveying the land
- Nw ordinance: procedure for dividing land into territories
- *Confederation's greatest achievements*
Confederation's Economic/Political problems
- Country lacked unity, each state functioned independently
- Didnt recognize difference in population among states
- Most serious economic problem: Huge debt that congress amassed during revolutionary war.
- Lacked power to tax, requested tariff to pay off foeign loans rejected
- Had no control over interstate or foriegn trade
- Struggle between creditors
- Lack of support from states for national concerns
- American's fear of giving national gov too much power resulted in gov that lacked sufficient power to deal with nation's problems
- Farmer's protest, caused panic and dismay throughout nation
- Every state had debt-ridden farmers
- Called for three-fifths of a state's slaves to be counted as population
- Settled political issue but not economic issue of slavery
- Offered a two-house Congress to satisfy both small and big states
- Size of population would determine its representation in the House of Representatives, or lower house
- Voters of each state chose members of the House
- Sate legislature chose members of Senate
- Pleased those who favored government, those who defended states' rights as it preserved power of state legislatures
Separation Of Powers
- Legislative Branch: Makes laws
- Executive Branch: Carries out laws
- Judicial Branch: interprets laws
- Checks and Balances: Prevents one branch from dominating others
- Federalism: Divided power between the national gov and state gov
Federalist Vs. Anti-Federalist
- Federalist: Supporters of the Constitution, favored balance of powers between states and national government.(merchants, laborers,small states, weak economies)
- Anti-Federalists: Opposed constitution/ having such a strong central government.(rural area, afaraid of tax burden from strong government.
- Federalists insisted division of powers/checks and balances would protect Americans from tyranny of centralized authority
- Anti-Feds countered with list of possible abuses by strong central government.
- Argument centered on Constitution's lack of protection for individual rights.
- A series of 85 essays defending the Constitution
- Federalist Leaders" Alex Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
Bill of Rights
- 10 amendments
- First 8 for personal liberties
- Ninth and Tenth for limits on powers of federal government.
- Antifederalists argues that since Constitution weakened sates, people needed a national Bill of Rights. Gurarantee people would have freedom of speech, religion,press.
- Believed in strong central government
- Commerce and industry were keys to a strong nation
- Favored society of farmer-citizens
- Economic Plan: establish a banking system
- American delegation planned to meet with french foreign minister, Instead directory sent three officials Adams in report to congress called "X,Y,Z". Demanded 250,000 for seeing Talleyrand.
- Provoked a wave of anti-French feeling at home
- Undeclared naval war raged between France and United States
Alien and Sedition Acts
- To counter what they saw as growing threat against gov, the Federalists pushed through Congress four measures ; Alien and Sedition Acts.
- Three measures,Alien Acts, allowed president to deport or jail any alien considered undersirable
- Fourth measure, the Sedition Act, set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder operation of government or expressing "false,scandalous, and malicious statements" against government.
States have the right to nullify, or consider void, any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutional.
- Included all the land drained by the western tributaries of the
- Mississippi River, the size of the United States more than doubled
- Jefferson bought Lousiana off spain
- It was controversial because he did it out of nowhere without people's consent when he was a strict constitutionalist
- This was unconstitutional
Marbury VS Madison
- Marbury never recieved his official papers, Madison was Jefferson's sec. of state, whose duty it was to deliever the papers
- Judiciary Act of 1789 required Supreme Court to order that papers be delivered, Marbury sued to enforce this provision.
- Justice Marshall decided provision of the act was unconstitutional because the Constitution did not empower Supreme Court to issue such orders.
- Judicial Review: the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
- Republic: a government in which citizens rule through their elected representatives
- Republicanism: the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people.
Disagreement over role of national government.
What three questions did delegates have to answer?
- 1) Representation by population or state?
- 2) Supreme power: Can it be divided?
- 3) Western Lands: who gets them?
Madisons's Virginia Plan
- Propesed a bicameral, or two-house, legislature, with membership based on each state's population.
- The voters would elect members of the lower house, who would then elect members of the upper house.
New Jersey Plan
Proposed a single-house congress in which each state had an equal voice
- Powers granted to the national government by the Constitution
- Include powers such as control of foriegn affairs,providing national defense, regulation trade between states and coining money.
- Powers kept by the states
- Include providing and supervising education, establishing marriage laws, regulating trade within a state
Order of Checks and Balances
- Legislative checks Executive-
- Executive checks Judicial-
- Judicial checks Legislative-
Each state would choose a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives the state had in Congress. The group of electors chosen by the states (e.c), would cast ballots for candidates.
Judiciary Act of 1789
- Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal Court System,headed by Supreme court
- Type of additional courts and how many? What would happen if federal court decisions conflicted with state laws? Judiciary Act answered these questions.
- Judicial structure
- To head departments of the executive branch, Washington chose Thomas jefferson(sec.o.state) Alexander Hamilton(sec.o.treasury), and Henry Knox(sec.o.war). Edmund randolph attorny general
- Department heads became known as president's chief advisors,or Cabinet
Bank Of United States
- Would be funded by both federal government and private investors
- Would issue paper money and handle tax receipts and other government funds
- Madison was against this plan , thought it was unconstitutional
- Hamilton used ELASTIC CLAUSE ,to carry out enumerated powers "do what is necessary and proper"
- Hamilton convinced Washington and majority of congress to accept his views, federal gov. established Bank of U.S
- Ancestors of Today's Democratic Party
- Jefferson's Republicans
- Import tax on goods produced in Europe
- Meant to encourage American production, brought in a great deal of revenue.
- Hamilton wanted more, excise tax, on whiskey
- Whiskey was main source of cash for frontier farmers-furious.
Support neither side in conflict
Placing the interests of one region over those of the nation as a whole
- Napoleon decided to exclude British goods from Europe
- In turn G.B decided that the best way of attacking Napoleon's Europe was to blockade it, or seal up its ports and prevent ships from entering or leaving
The practice of seizing Americans at sea and "impressing",or drafting them into the British Navy
- Ban on exporting products to other countries
- Jefferson believed Embargo Act of 1807 would hurt Britain and other European powers and force them to honor American neutrality
- Embargo hurt America more than Britain and congress lifted ban on foriegn trade
Treaty of Ghent
Declared armistice, or end to fighting
Causes of War of 1812
- Impressment, seizing americans
- SPARK: the cherokee ship was blown up and the sailors were taken prisoner by british ships
- Madison wanted to unite the different regions of the country adn create a stron stable economy, self-sufficent. Three points
- 1) developing transportation systems/internal improvements
- 2)establishing a protective tariff
- 3)Ressureacting the national bank
- Henry clay promoted it as American System
Tariff of 1816
- Placing a tariff on imports would increase the cost of foreign goods and eliminate British' price advantage.
- Tariff would pay for internal improvements