4.22 The Respiratory System

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susaneers
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49611
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4.22 The Respiratory System
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2010-11-16 04:16:56
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Functional Anatomy Ventilation Disorders Throughout Life
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Functional Anatomy and Disorders of the Respiratory System and Ventilation
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  1. The Respiratory System
    General Overview
    • Basic functions of the respiratory system:
    • • Supplies body with oxygen
    • • Disposes of carbon dioxide

    • Four processes involved in respiration:
    • 1. Pulmonary ventilation: air moved in and out of the lungs to exchange gases
    • 2. External respiration: gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli
    • 3. Transport of respiratory gases: CO2 and O2 transported between lungs and cells via cardiovascular system
    • 4. Internal respiration: gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
  2. Respiratory Organs
    • Respiratory organs
    • • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
    • • Pharynx, larynx, and trachea
    • • Bronchi and smaller branches
    • • Lungs and alveoli

    • Divided into
    • Conducting zone ( carry air to the site of gas exchange. Also warm, filter
    • and humidify the incoming air)
    • Respiratory zone ( actual site of gas exchange)
  3. The Nose/ Nasal Cavity
    • The Nose:
    • • Provides an airway for respiration
    • • Moistens and warms air
    • • Filters inhaled air
    • • Resonating chamber for speech
    • • Houses olfactory receptors

    • The Nasal Cavity:
    • External nares—nostrils
    • • Through the nostrils air enters the nasal cavity
    • • Divided by nasal septum
    • • Air flows over inferior, superior and middle nasal conchae

    • Palate –separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity.
    • • Anterior – hard palate
    • • Posterior – soft palate
    • • Continuous with nasopharynx
    • Two types of mucous membrane
    • 1. Olfactory mucosa
    • • Near roof of nasal cavity
    • • Houses olfactory (smell) receptors
    • 2. Respiratory mucosa
    • • Lines nasal cavity
    • • Epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  4. The Pharynx
    • • Funnel-shaped passageway
    • • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus
    • • Divided into three sections by location:
    • 1. Nasopharynx: Superior to the point where food enters; only an air passageway; closed off during swallowing by uvula
    • Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids –located on posterior wall)
    • • Destroys entering pathogens
    • • Contains the opening to the pharyngotympanic tube (auditory tube)
    • Tubal tonsil: Provides some protection from infection

    • 2. Oropharynx: Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis
    • • Common passage way for food and air
    • • Two types of tonsils in the oropharynx:
    • 1. Palatine tonsils—in the lateral walls of the fauces
    • 2. Lingual tonsils—covers the posterior surface of the tongue


    • 3. Laryngopharynx: Passageway for both food and air
    • • lies posterior to the epiglottis and extends into the larynx and esophagus
  5. The Larynx

    • Three functions:
    • 1. Voice production
    • 2. Provides an open airway
    • 3. Routes air and food into the proper channels

    • Superior opening is
    • • Closed during swallowing
    • • Open during breathing

    • Cartilages of the Larynx:
    • Thyroid cartilage: Shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple)

    Cricoid cartilage – shaped like a signet ring

    • Three pairs of small cartilages
    • Arytenoid cartilages (anchors vocal cords)
    • Corniculate cartilages
    • Cuneiform cartilages


    Epiglottis – located superior to the opening of larynx, tips inferiorly during swallowing

    • The mucous membrane of larynx is thrown into two folds:
    • 1. Vocal folds (true vocal cords)
    • • Act in sound production
    • • attached to the arytenoid cartilage by vocal ligaments.

    • 2. Vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
    • • No role in sound production
    • Glottis – Opening between the vocal cords
  6. The Trachea
    Air enters the trachea from the larynx.

    • Walls of the trachea - C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings
    • • keeps airway open
    • • Allows esophagus to expand

    Trachea divides into two primary bronchi ( largest brochi)
  7. Bronchi in the Conducting Zone
    • Secondary (lobar) bronchi
    • • Three on the right
    • • Two on the left

    • Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
    • • Branch into each lung segment

    • Bronchioles
    • • Little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter

    • Terminal bronchioles
    • • Less than 0.5 mm in diameter
  8. Structures of the Respiratory Zone
    • Consists of air-exchanging structures

    • Respiratory bronchioles—branch from terminal bronchioles
    • • Lead to alveolar ducts
    • • Lead to alveolar sacs ( cluster of grapes)

    • Alveoli
    • • ~300 million alveoli account for tremendous surface area of the lungs
    • • Surface area of alveoli is ˜140 square meters
    • • External surface of the alveoli is filled with a network of pulmonary capillaries and elastic fibers
    • Structure of alveoli
    • • Type I cells—single layer of simple squamous epithelial cells
    • • Surrounded by basal lamina
    • •Type II cells—scattered among type I cells
    • • Are cuboidal epithelial cells
    • • Secrete surfactant
    • - Reduces surface tension within alveoli

  9. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs
    • Left lung
    • • Superior and inferior lobes
    • • Fissure—oblique

    • Right lung
    • • Superior, middle, and inferior lobes
    • • Fissures—oblique and horizontal

    • Pleura
    • • A double-layered sac surrounding each lung
    • • Parietal pleura
    • • Visceral pleura
    • • Pleural cavity: Potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae

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