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Benito Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism.
Joseph Stalin (18 December 1879 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet politician and head of state who served as the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. After the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Stalin rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union, which he ruled as a dictator.
Conglomeration of Politicians
Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He was an influential member of the nationalist party Kuomintang (KMT) and Sun Yat-sen's close ally.
Sun Yat-sen (pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the Founding Father of Republican China, a view agreed upon by both Mainland China and Taiwan. Sun played an instrumental role in inspiring the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, which began in October 1911.
Picasso Self Potrait.
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Spanish pronunciation: ['paβlo rwiθ pi'kaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, draughtsman, and sculptor who lived most of his adult life in France. He is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937), his portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
Vincent Van Gogh.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: faŋˈxɔx listen (help·info), or English: ˌvæn ˈɡɒx,[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work had a far-reaching influence on 20th century art for its vivid colors and emotional impact. He suffered from anxiety and increasingly frequent bouts of mental illness throughout his life and died, largely unknown, at the age of 37 from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.
- John Forbes Nash, Jr. (born June 13, 1928) is an American mathematician whose works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations
- have provided insight into the forces that govern chance and events
- inside complex systems in daily life. His theories are used in market economics, computing, evolutionary biology, artificial intelligence, accounting, politics and military theory. Serving as a Senior Research Mathematician at Princeton University during the later part of his life, he shared the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with game theorists Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi.
- Nash is the subject of the Hollywood movie A Beautiful Mind. The film, loosely based on the biography of the same name, focuses on Nash's mathematical genius and struggle with paranoid schizophrenia.
IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɐˈvʲet͡ɕkʲɪn]; born September 17, 1985) is a Russian professional ice hockey left winger and captain of the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League (NHL). Prior to playing in the NHL, Ovechkin played for HC Dynamo Moscow of the Russian Superleague for four seasons from 2001 until 2005. Ovechkin was the first overall selection in the 2004 NHL Entry Draft, drafted from Dynamo after 3 seasons with the club. Since the 2004-05 NHL season was lost because of a lockout, Ovechkin remained with Dynamo for one more season before transferring to the NHL for the 2005–06 NHL season, in which he won the Calder Memorial Trophy as rookie of the year, scoring 52 goals and 54 assists to lead all rookies with 106 points.
- Anderson da Silva (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɐ̃deʁsõ ˈsiwvɐ]; born April 14, 1975) is a Brazilian mixed martial artist. He is the current UFC Middleweight Champion as well as the promotion's longest reigning champion.
- With 13 consecutive wins, Silva holds the longest active winning streak
- in the UFC and the record for the longest winning streak in UFC
- history. Silva holds a black belt in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu under Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira. He trains at Black House.
- Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III (born November 19, 1938) is an American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the cable news network CNN, the first dedicated 24-hour cable news channel. In addition, he founded WTBS, which pioneered the superstation concept in cable television. As a philanthropist, he is known for his $1 billion gift to support UN causes, which created the United Nations Foundation, a public charity to broaden support for the UN. Turner serves as Chairman of the United Nations Foundation board of directors.
- Turner's media empire began with his father's billboard business, which he took over at 24 after his father's suicide. The business, Turner Outdoor Advertising, was worth $1 million when Turner took it over in 1963. Purchase of an Atlanta UHF station in 1970 began the Turner Broadcasting System. Cable News Network revolutionized news media, covering the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Turner turned the Atlanta Braves baseball team into a nationally popular franchise and launched the charitable Goodwill Games.
- Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS
- (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and
- statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the
- Second World War (WWII). He is widely regarded as one of the great
- wartime leaders. He served as prime minister twice (1940–45 and
- 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in
- the British Army, a historian, writer, and an artist. To date, he is
- the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in
- Literature, and the first person to be recognised as an honorary citizen
- of the United States.
- During his army career, Churchill saw military action in British India, the Sudan and the Second Boer War.
- He gained fame and notoriety as a war correspondent and through
- contemporary books he wrote describing the campaigns. He also served
- briefly in the British Army on the Western Front in the First World War
- (WWI), commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.
- At the forefront of the political scene for almost fifty years, he
- held many political and cabinet positions. Before WWI, he served as
- President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary and First Lord of the
- Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government. During the war, he
- continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli
- Campaign caused his departure from government. He returned as Minister
- of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for
- Air. In the interwar years, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in
- the Conservative government.
- After the outbreak of the WWII, Churchill was again appointed First Lord
- of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on
- 10 May 1940, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led
- Britain to victory against the Axis powers.
- Churchill was always noted for his speeches, which became a great
- inspiration to the British people, as well as to the embattled Allied forces.
- After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of
- the Opposition. In 1951, he again became Prime Minister, before
- retiring in 1955. Upon his death, the Queen granted him the honour of a
- state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of statesmen in
- the world.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). President during the Depression.
- Ernesto "Che" Guevara (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtʃe geˈβaɾa]; June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as El Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, since his death, Guevara's stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol and global insignia within popular culture.
- As a medical student, Guevara traveled throughout Latin America and was transformed by the endemic poverty he witnessed. His experiences and observations during these trips led him to conclude that the region's ingrained economic inequalities were an intrinsic result of capitalism, monopolism, neocolonialism, and imperialism, with the only remedy being world revolution. This belief prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Arbenz, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow solidified Guevara's radical ideology. Later, while living in Mexico City, he met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement, and travelled to Cuba aboard the yacht, Granma, with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents,
- was promoted to second-in-command, and played a pivotal role in the
- successful two year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime.
- Following the Cuban Revolution, Guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included instituting agrarian reform as minister of industries, serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba’s armed forces, reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, and traversing the globe as a diplomat on behalf of Cuban socialism. Such positions allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion and bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Additionally, he was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on guerrilla warfare, along with a best-selling memoir about his youthful motorcycle journey across South America. Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to foment revolution abroad, first unsuccessfully in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by CIA-assisted Bolivian forces and executed.
- Guevara remains both a revered and reviled historical figure, polarized in the collective imagination in a multitude of biographies, memoirs, essays, documentaries, songs, and films. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, while an Alberto Korda photograph of him entitled Guerrillero Heroico (shown), was declared "the most famous photograph in the world."
One thread indicates:
- Che Guevara is somewhat popular because a lot of students in college are
- fucking retarded. Nothing pisses me off more than seeing so-called
- liberals with a Che Fucking Guevara shirt.
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; Hindi: मोहनदास करमचंद गांधी, pronounced [moːˈɦənd̪aːs kəˈrəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha. This is defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa, or total nonviolence.
- This concept helped India to gain independence, and inspired movements
- for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is often referred
- to as Mahatma Gandhi ([məɦaːt̪maː]; Sanskrit: महात्मा mahātmā or "Great Soul", an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore). In India he is also called Bapu (Gujarati: બાપુ, bāpu or "Father"). He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu Nationalist.
- Gandhi first employed civil disobedience
- while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian
- community's struggle there for civil rights. After his return to India
- in 1915, he organised protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers
- concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming
- leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later, in 1942, he launched the Quit India civil disobedience movement demanding immediate independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.
- As a practitioner of ahimsa, Gandhi swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven from yarn that he had spun by hand himself. He ate simple vegetarian food, experimented for a time with a fruitarian diet, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.
- Francisco Franco was in power he helped to stabilize the economy of
- Spain which had been ruined after the civil war which had taken place.
- The civil war occurred because of the rebellion against the government
- of Spain. Franco and a group of others who had a strong disbelief in the
- policies of the Republican government formed a coup to revolt against
- the government of Spain and to gain power over the government. These
- attacks on the government eventually turned into the civil war between
- the Republicans and the Nationalists. In the end, Franco led the
- Nationalists to victory with the support of Hitler and Mussolini. During
- Franco's reign, the economy was restored. There were three main factors
- which contributed to the improvement of the economy of Spain. The first
- factor being the tourism in Spain. With beautiful beaches, lovely warm
- weather and bargain prices, Spain managed to attract many tourists. The
- second factor was the foreign investment. The USA was the most important
- source. The third factor was the emigrant remittances. More than 3
- million Spaniards emigrated to other countries. This provided the
- country with much needed monetary envoys. Not only did the economy
- improve during Franco's reign but many people who held the beliefs of a
- Republican were killed. Hundreds of thousands of Republicans were
- imprisoned and nearly 200, 000 were summarily executed or killed. Franco
- also introduced a new system called the 'New State'. This system was
- based on the fascist ideas of unquestioning loyalty, the denial of
- individual rights and freedoms and state intervention in economic and
- social management. Also during his rule, trade unions were banned,
- strikes were forbidden, divorce was illegal, abortion was illegal,
- political parties outlawed, no freedom of speech, no freedom of the
- press, no freedom of religion, civil marriage banned, media silenced.
- Francos actions were obviously highly dictatorial during his reign.Read more: http://wiki.answers.com
- Captain James Cook FRS RN (7 November 1728 –
- 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer,
- ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made
- detailed maps of Newfoundland
- prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he
- achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of
- Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.
Giovanni Caboto (known in English as John Cabot; c. 1450 – c. 1499) was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of North America is commonly held to have been the second European voyage to the continent following that of Christopher Columbus a few years prior. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland.
When did BC become a province
When did Manitoba become a province?
Who were the Coureur des bois?
The coureurs des bois (French pronunciation: [kuʁœʁ de bwa], runners of the woods) were French-Canadian woodsmen, who travelled to the interior of North America to engage in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. A Coureur de Bois was an adventurer, expert canoeist, and skilled businessmen. The coureurs de bois, mostly of French descent, operated during the late 17th century and early 18th century in eastern North America, particularly in New France. Later, a limited number of permits were issued to coureurs des bois who became known as voyageurs.
Who was Jacques Cartier?
Jacques Cartier (December 31, 1491 – September 1, 1557) was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island).
Who was Christopher Columbus?
Christopher Columbus (c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer from the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy, whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. With his four voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the island of Hispaniola, all funded by Isabella I of Castile, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World".
Who was Samuel du Champlain?
- Samuel de Champlain (French pronunciation: [samɥɛl də ʃɑ̃plɛ̃] born Samuel Champlain; ca. 1567  – December 25, 1635), "The Father of New France",
- was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer,
- geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler, who founded Quebec City on July 3, 1608.
Who was Napolean Bonaparte?
- Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.
- Napoleon was born in Corsica, France to parents of minor noble Italian ancestry and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France. Bonaparte rose to prominence under the French First Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade of the 19th century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving
- every major European power. After a streak of victories, France secured
- a dominant position in continental Europe, and Napoleon maintained the
- French sphere of influence
- through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of
- friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states.
- The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British on the island of Saint Helena. An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud and other scientists have since conjectured he was poisoned with arsenic.
- Napoleon's campaigns are studied at military academies throughout
- much of the world. While considered a tyrant by his opponents, he is
- also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic code, which laid the administrative and judicial foundations for much of Western Europe.
- Genghis Khan (pronounced /ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/ or /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/; Mongolian: Чингис Хаан or ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Chinggis Khaan, or Činggis Qaγan), IPA: [tʃiŋɡɪs xaːŋ]( listen); probably 1162–1227), born Borjigin Temüjin pronunciation (help·info), was the founder, Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
- He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he started the Mongol invasions that would ultimately result in the conquest of most of Eurasia. These included raids or invasions of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by wholesale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in Khwarezmia. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.
- Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons. He died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia at an unknown location. His descendants went on to stretch the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering and/or creating vassal states out of all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asian countries, and substantial portions of modern Eastern Europe, Russia and the Middle East.
- Many of these invasions resulted in the large-scale slaughter of local
- populations, which have given Genghis Khan and his empire a fearsome
- reputation in local histories. It has been estimated that his campaigns killed as many as 40 million people based on census data of the times.
- Beyond his great military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced
- the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur
- script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also promoted
- religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, and created a unified empire
- from the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard
- him highly as the founding father of Mongolia.
- Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German priest and professor of theology who initiated the Protestant Reformation. Strongly disputing the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money, he confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the emperor.
- Luther taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus as redeemer from sin. His theology challenged the authority of the pope of the Roman Catholic Church by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge and opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with Luther's teachings are called Lutherans.
- His translation of the Bible into the language of the people (instead of Latin)
- made it more accessible, causing a tremendous impact on the church and
- on German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of
- the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, and influenced the translation into English of the King James Bible. His hymns influenced the development of singing in churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant priests to marry.
- In his later years, Luther became strongly antisemitic,
- writing that Jewish homes should be destroyed, their synagogues burned,
- money confiscated and liberty curtailed. These statements have made
- Luther a controversial figure among many historians and religious
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
- Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776). Jefferson was one of the most influential Founding Fathers, known for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States. Jefferson envisioned America as the force behind a great "Empire of Liberty" that would promote republicanism and counter the imperialism of the British Empire.
- Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806), as well as escalating tensions with both Britain and France that led to war with Britain in 1812, after he left office.
- As a political philosopher, Jefferson was a man of the Enlightenment and knew many intellectual leaders in Britain and France. He idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of republican
- virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights
- and a strictly limited federal government. Jefferson supported the separation of church and state and was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786). He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the cofounder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, which dominated American politics for 25 years. Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), first United States Secretary of State (1789–1793), and second Vice President of the United States (1797–1801).
- A polymath, Jefferson achieved distinction as, among other things, a horticulturist, political leader, architect, archaeologist, paleontologist, musician, inventor, and founder of the University of Virginia. When President John F. Kennedy welcomed 49 Nobel Prize winners to the White House
- in 1962 he said, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of
- talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at
- the White House – with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson
- dined alone." 
- To date, Jefferson is the only president to serve two full terms in
- office without vetoing a single bill of Congress. Jefferson has been
- consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest of U.S. presidents.
Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East.
- Da Gama was born to a noble family in Sines, Portugal.
- Da Gama's father Estavao was also an explorer. He was to have made the
- sea voyage from Portugal to India that eventually made his son famous,
- but the elder da Gama died before completing the journey.
- Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon, Portugal, on July 8,
- 1497, heading to the East. At the time, many people thought that da
- Gama's trip would be impossible because it was assumed that the Indian
- Ocean was not connected to any other seas. Da Gama's patron was King
- Manuel I of Portugal.
- Da Gama rounded Africa's Cape of Good Hope on November
- 22, and continued on to India. After many stops in Africa, and
- problems with Muslim traders who did not want interference in their
- profitable trade routes, da Gama reached Calicut, India on May 20, 1498.
- At first, da Gama and his trading were well-received,
- but this did not last for long. Da Gama left India on August 29, 1498,
- after he was told to pay a large tax and leave all of his trading goods.
- When he left, da Gama took his goods with him, together with some
- Indian hostages.
- Da Gama returned to Lisbon, Portugal, in September,
- 1499. Along the way many crew members died from scurvy (a disease
- caused by a lack of Vitamin C). Upon his return, da Gama was treated as
- a hero and was rewarded by the king.
- King Manuel I of Portugal then sent da Gama, now an
- Admiral, on another expedition to India (1502-1503). On this second
- trip, da Gama took 20 armed ships (anticipating problems from Muslim
- traders). On this voyage, da Gama killed hundreds of Muslims, often
- brutally, in order to demonstrate his power.
- After King Manuel's death, King John III sent da Gama to
- India as a Portuguese viceroy (the King's representative in India).
- Vasco da Gama died of an illness in India on December 24, 1524; his
- remains were returned to Portugal for burial.
Kiefer Sutherland (born 21 December 1966) is a Canadian actor, producer and director, best known for his portrayal of Jack Bauer on the Fox thriller drama series 24. He is an Emmy Award- and Golden Globe award-winner. He is the son of Canadian actors Donald Sutherland and Shirley Douglas.
- Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor and film director of the silent film era. He became one of the best-known film stars in the world before the end of the First World War. Chaplin used mime, slapstick and other visual comedy routines, and continued well into the era of the talkies, though his films decreased in frequency from the end of the 1920s. His most famous role was that of The Tramp, which he first played in the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice in 1914. From the April 1914 one-reeler Twenty Minutes of Love onwards he was writing and directing most of his films, by 1916 he was also producing, and from 1918 composing the music. With Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D. W. Griffith, he co-founded United Artists in 1919.
- Chaplin was one of the most creative and influential personalities of
- the silent-film era. He was influenced by his predecessor, the French
- silent movie comedian Max Linder, to whom he dedicated one of his films. His working life in entertainment spanned over 75 years, from the Victorian stage and the Music Hall
- in the United Kingdom as a child performer, until close to his death at
- the age of 88. His high-profile public and private life encompassed
- both adulation and controversy. Chaplin's identification with the left
- ultimately forced him to resettle in Europe during the McCarthy era in the early 1950s.
- In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Chaplin the 10th greatest male screen legend of all time. In 2008, Martin Sieff, in a review of the book Chaplin: A Life,
- wrote: "Chaplin was not just 'big', he was gigantic. In 1915, he burst
- onto a war-torn world bringing it the gift of comedy, laughter and
- relief while it was tearing itself apart through World War I. Over the
- next 25 years, through the Great Depression and the rise of Adolf Hitler,
- he stayed on the job. ... It is doubtful any individual has ever given
- more entertainment, pleasure and relief to so many human beings when
- they needed it the most". George Bernard Shaw called Chaplin "the only genius to come out of the movie industry".
- Adolf Hitler (German pronunciation: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as head of state as Führer und Reichskanzler from 1934 to 1945.
- A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the precursor of the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919, and became leader of NSDAP in 1921. He attempted a failed coup d'etat known as the Beer Hall Putsch, which occurred at the Bürgerbräukeller beer hall in Munich
- on November 8–9, 1923. Hitler was imprisoned for one year due to the
- failed coup, and wrote his memoir, "My Struggle" (in German Mein Kampf), while imprisoned. After his release on December 20, 1924, he gained support by promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism, anti-capitalism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and propaganda. He was appointed chancellor on January 30, 1933, and transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism.
- Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. To achieve this, he pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Aryan people;
- directing the resources of the state towards this goal. This included
- the rearmament of Germany, which culminated in 1939 when the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. In response, the United Kingdom and France declared war against Germany, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.
- Within three years, German forces and their European allies had occupied most of Europe, and most of Northern Africa, and the Japanese forces had occupied parts of East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Allies
- gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1944, Allied armies had
- invaded German-held Europe from all sides. Nazi forces engaged in
- numerous violent acts during the war, including the systematic murder of
- as many as 17 million civilians, including an estimated six million Jews targeted in the Holocaust and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma, added to the Poles, Soviet civilians, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other political and religious opponents.
- In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun and, to avoid capture by Soviet forces, the two committed suicide less than two days later on 30 April 1945.
- While Hitler is most remembered for his central role in World War II
- and the Holocaust, his government left behind other legacies as well,
- including the Volkswagen, the Autobahn, jet aircraft and rocket technology.