Anatomy - Exam 3.txt

Card Set Information

Anatomy - Exam 3.txt
2010-11-15 00:35:55
Anatomy neurons nerves

Review for exam 3
Show Answers:

  1. What are the general functions of the Nervous System?
    • -Sensory Function: Receives incoming info (stimuli) from SENSORY RECEPTORS
    • -Integrative Function: Interprets and processes info to determine approproate responses
    • -Effector Function: Produces OUTGOING signals (from brain) to initiate a response in muslces or glands
  2. What does the CNS contol?
    -Brain and spinal cord ONLY
  3. What does the PNS control?
    -Neural Tissue outside the CNS
  4. What kind of myellin sheeth does the CNS have?
  5. What kind of myellin sheeth does the PNS have?
    -Schwann Cells
  6. Responses travel down different _________ (from stimuli)
  7. What are the brain and spinal cord protected by?
    -Meninges and spinal fluid
  8. Where is the CNS centralized?
    -Within the skull and vertebral column
  9. What functions does the CNS play a part in?
    • -Simple reflexes (through spinal cord)
    • -Complex reflexes
    • -Higher order function: Memory, learning, intelligence (WHAT THE PNS LACKS)
  10. Where is the PNS centralized?
    -Mostly outside of skull and vertebral column
  11. What are the Peripheral nerves?
    -Cranial nerves (sensory neurons off BRAIN mostly lead to head and face ex. numbind @ dentist) and Spinal nerves (Come off spinal cord)
  12. What are the two types of peripheral ganglia?
    • -Sensory ganglia
    • -Autonomic nervous system ganglia (controls involuntary things)
  13. What are ganglia?
    -Pockets/collection of cell bodies, for signals coming INTO brain
  14. ______________ division brings sensory info FROM receptors
    -Afferent: approach (sensory) into brain
  15. ______________ division carries motor commands TO effectors
    -Efferent: Exit
  16. Neurons don't __________ they only form new _____________
    -divide, connections
  17. What are nerve cells (neurons)
    -Electrically active cells that process and conduct information in the form of electrical signals
  18. Neuroglia (glial cells) are _________ cells NOT ______
    support, neurons
  19. In the PNS, glial cells are:
    -Satellite cells, Schwann cells
  20. Schwann Cells are responsible for:
    Making the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon
  21. In the CNS, glial cells are:
    -oligodendrocytes (myeling sheath), astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
  22. What role do astrocytes play
    -They sit between neurons and hold them together
  23. For the PNS, _________ are responsible for the collection of nerve cell processes (fibers) for transmission of information.
  24. For the CNS, _________ are responsible for the collection of nerve cell processes (fibers) for transmission of information.
    -White matter, fiber tract, column
  25. White matter=________
  26. In the PNS, ____________ are responsible for the collection of nerve cell bodies for processing information.
  27. In the CNS, ____________ are responsible for the collection of nerve cell bodies for processing information
    -Grey matter, nucleus, cortex
  28. Grey matter is composed of a bunch of _____ ________ bundled together.
    -cell bodies
  29. Neuroglial cells surround and support both nerve cell ______ and _____
    -bodies, processess
  30. Posterior (dorsal) _______ horns contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei of grey matter.
  31. Anterior (ventral) _______ horns deal with somatic motor control.
  32. _________ gray horns contain visceral (ANS) motor neurons.
  33. The size of grey matter (#of nerve cells) is related to the size of body _________.
  34. Cervical and lumbar enlargements are due to:
    -A bunch of neurons leave that area ex. arm and legs
  35. White matter of the spinal cord are divided into six columns (funiculi) containing ________.
    -Tracts (posterior, anterior, lateral columns)
  36. __________ tracts relay info from the spinal cord to the brain
    -Ascending (INTO brain)
  37. __________ tracts carry info from the brain to the spinal cord.
    -Descending (send from to brain to EFFECTORS)
  38. Dorsal (posterior) root of spinal nerve is all __________ (afferent) info
  39. Ventral (anterior) root of spinal nerve is __________ (efferent) info
  40. Spinal nerves are a mixture of sensory and _______ fibers (vertebrae have both)
  41. Each spinal nerve receives sensory input from one _________---
  42. What's a dermatome?
    -A region of the skin monitored by the sensory afferents of a single spinal segment.
  43. Another term that descriobes cells that function as afferent of the CNS:
    -sensory neurons
  44. Diencephalon consists of:
    -Thalamus and hypothalamus
  45. Mesencephalon is the technical term for:
  46. The cortex of cerebral hemisphere (grey matter on outer surface) is the _______________ level of processing
  47. Where is info stored in the brain?
    -Cerebral Cortex
  48. Basal nuclei of cerebral hemisphere is responsible for _______ control.
  49. Thalamus is responsible for:
    _Processing central info (info travels from thalamus INTO brain)
  50. Hypothalamus is responsible for:
    • ANS (involuntary and hormones) and endocrine control
    • --very small but does alot
  51. Cortex of cerebellum (outer portion of cerebellum) is responsible for:
    Motor control (coordination)
  52. Fibers are:
    bundle of axons in brain
  53. Projection fibers:
    ASCENDING and DESCENDING ttracts of the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain
  54. Association fibers:
    • Connect between areas on the same side of the CNS
    • ---constantly making new association fibers
  55. Commisural fibers:
    • Connect between ateas on the opposite sides of the CNS
    • ---Coordinate right and left hemisphere, can function without connection
  56. Meninges:
    layers of connective tissue (3 total layers protecting the brain and spinal cord)
  57. What are responsible for protection and support of the CNS?
    • -Skull, vertebrae, ligaments, muscles (protect brain and spinal cord)
    • -Meninges
    • -Cerebral spinal fluid
    • -Blood-brain barrier
  58. Meninges are specialized CT layers, 3 types:
    • -Dura mater: hard matter, outer layer
    • -Arachnoid mater: middle layer
    • -Pia mater: soft, sits directly on top of the brain and spinal column
  59. Meninges provide _______ stability and ________ absorption
    -physical, shock
  60. Meninges support _____ ________ entering and exiting the CNS tissue
    blood vessels
  61. Spinal Meninges anchor the _____ _______
    • spinal cord
    • -base: to coccyx via filum terminale and coccygeal ligament
    • -top: tp periosteum of foramen magnum
    • -laterally: denticualte ligaments (connects to Pia mater and lateral to spinal cord)
  62. How do spinal meninges provide cushioning?
    • -Epidural space with epidural fat separates dura mater from walls of vertebral column
    • -Subarachnoid space is filled with CSF
  63. Folds of ______ _______ help stabilize the brain
    • dura mater
    • -contains sinuses that serve as veins
  64. Cereobrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced in:
    inside ventricles from incoming blood
  65. CSF diffuses out of capillaries of the ________ ________ into ventricles
    Choroid plexus
  66. CSF exits venricles into _________ space through apertures of the 4th ventricle
  67. CSF circulates through subarachnoid space of spinal and cranial meninges and exits across _________ __________ into the superior sagittal sinus (vein)
    arachnoid granulations
  68. CSF comes from _____ and returns to ______
  69. CSF transports _________, _________ _________, and _______ products
    nutrients, chemical messengers, waste (circulate in spinal fluid and goes to brain)
  70. CSF provides _________ and buoyancy
  71. Blockage of CSF circulation causes pressure in ____________
  72. Enlarging ventricels damage ________ tissue
  73. What is hydrocephalus?
    • "Water on the brain"
    • -body makes CSF but can't transfer from ventricels, comprresses neural tissue....would need to manually open apeture for it to drain into subarachnoid space
  74. __________ allow CSF to leave subarachnoid space
  75. A fiber tract form the cerebellum to the anterior horn of the spinal cord is:
    -a descending projection fiber tract carrying motor info
  76. Commisural fibers go from _______ to _________
  77. Interneurons (association neurons):
    • -Located mostly within the CNS
    • -Interconnect among nerve cells
    • -Function in processing info
  78. Satellite cells:
    • surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia (regulatory function:O, CO2)
    • -make up myellin sheath
  79. Schwann cells:
    -Ensheath axons and dendrites in PNS
  80. Unmyelinated axon:
    Schwann cell ensheaths sections of many axons
  81. Myelinated axon:
    Schwann cell ensheaths a SECTION of a SINGLE axon
  82. Nodes of Ranvier:
    gaps between Schwann cells
  83. Myelin causes axons to to transfer _______ _______ and info quickly
    Action potentials
  84. Astrocytes (supporting cells):
    • -largest and most numerous of CNS
    • -structural support: scar tissue formation (connect between neurons, surround capillaries)
    • -regulate interstitial fluid components
    • - make up blood-brain barrier (acts like border control for brain)
  85. Blood Brain Barrier:
    • -Restricts migration of cells and diffusion of molecules out of capillaries of the brain:Tight Junctions between endothelial cells & Astrocytes cover capillary surfaces
    • -Restricts diffusion of CSF our of ventricles: Tight junctions between ependymal cells
    • -Incomplete barrier in areas:Parts of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland (mostly where hormones are produced)
  86. What are ependymal cells?
    • (phagocytes) surround all chambers in the CNS and help circulate what comes in and goes out
    • ---Regulates CFS
  87. Microglia:
    Phagocytic cells-remove debris, pathogens, etc.
  88. Ependymal cells:
    • -Line chambers within CNS
    • -Produce CSF in choroid plexus regions
    • -Circulate CSF
  89. Damage to nerve cell = _______ _______
    • neuron death
    • -Few if any germinative cells in adult brain
    • --Nervous system unable to repair itself if damaged
  90. What happens when nerve cell axon in CNs is damaged?
    • -Oligodendrocytes reabsorb myelin
    • -Astrocytes fill in area forming scar tissue (can't conduct electrical impulses so forms scar tissue)
    • -Growth inhibiting factors secreted by oligodendrocytes and astrocytes (NO new production of neural tissue)
  91. What happens when the nerve cell axon in PNs is damaged?
    • -Schwann cell myeling pathway can guide regenerating axons and sensory dendrites
    • ---SOME regeneration, can get SOME neural function back bc of schwann cells, oligos do same
  92. Herpes:
    Latent infection of sensory neurons in peripheral ganglia
  93. Electricity: _________ of electrons
    • flow
    • --Force is an electrical gradient, always negative to positive
  94. Bioelectricity: flow of ______
    • ions
    • --force is chemical gradient and electrical gradient combined
    • ---Diffusion is the driving force
  95. Action Potentials must be initiated at the _______
    soma (or dendrites)
  96. Stimulus can change the ______ of a cell if at axon hillock and AP will go forward IF storng enough
  97. Transmembrane potential (resting potential)
    -Driving force for ion flow across the cell
  98. Extracellular fluid:
    higher concentrations of Na ions, CL ions and Ca ions
  99. Intracellular fluid:
    • higher concentrations of K ions and negatively charged proteins
    • --want to keep negative
  100. Concentration gradient's ____________ by active transport of Na ions out of cell and K ions into cell
    • mantained
    • --pump constant
  101. Charged ions must go through ______, can't go across membrane alone
  102. Gated channels open in response to various stimuli/responses:
    • -Ions flow across membrane by diffusion DOWN conc gradient
    • -Typically only open BRIEFLY
  103. Ion flow across a membrane requires:
    • -Chemical and/or electrical conc gradient (driving force):Transmembrane potential
    • -Pathway: Ion channel through the membrane
  104. Ion flow through the cytoplasm of interstitial fluid (local current) requires:
    -Chemical and/or electrical conc gradient (driving forcE)
  105. Local current:
    • -Driving force is the conc gradient created by ions coming across membrane through open channels
    • -Ions travel a short distance through cytoplasm of interstitial fluid: Cyto and inter have high resisitance to ion flow, Depolar and Hypopolar effect DECREASES with distance form open channel
  106. Local currents transmit bioelectric signals over ________ distances
    • short
    • --Typical of dendrites and cell bodies in NS
  107. Action Potentials needed to transmit bioelectric signals over ______ distances
    • long
    • --Typical of axons and long dendrites of unipolar and bipolar sensory neurons
    • --Unique to "excitable" cells (so they can pass changes in charge rapidly)
  108. Sodium ion channel:
    • -Open rapidly in response to depolarization
    • -Inactivate rapidly after opening and can not reopen until return to RESTING STATE (Absolute refractory period-can not reopen)
  109. Porassium ion channel
    • -Open slowly in response to depolarization
    • -Close slowly after repolarization
  110. Steps involved in an Action Potential:
    • 1. Membrane depolarization stimulus occurs (some type of stimulus to open 1 of 3 channels)
    • 2. Sodium channel activates, flow into cell and depolarize it MORE
    • 3. Sodium channel inactivation, ions stop flowing in
    • 4. Potassium channel activates: ions flow OUT of cell, repolarizing and then HYPERPOLARIZING the membrane (ESTABLISHES REFRACTORY PERIOD)
    • 5. Return to normal permeability:both sodium and potassium channels close
  111. Action Potentials Ion restoration:
    • -Only a small amount of sodium ions and potassium ions corss the membrane
    • -Transmembrane potential (store potential E for AP's) can power MANY AP's before becoming depleted
    • -Sodium potassium ATPase exchange pump maintains transmembrane potential over time but isn't needed for each AP )consistent.
  112. Generation of AP follows all-or-none principle:
    -Requires threshold depolarization (at hillock) to initiate AP
  113. Threshold depolarization:
    • Amount of depolarization needed to open enough voltage gated Na channels
    • -Comes from LOCAL CURRENT spreading through cytoplasm in SOMA
  114. Continuous propagation definition:
    • -Propagation of AP along entire membrane in series of SMALL STEPS
    • --UNMYELINATED axons
    • ex: playing telephone game, it eventually reaches end
  115. Saltatory propagation definition:
    • -Propagation of an AP from NODE TO NODE, skipping internodal membrane
    • --MYELINATED axons
    • ex: playing telephone game but skipping ten people each turn, much faster
  116. Steps of continuous propagation of AP:
    • 1. Threshold level of local current spread to AP initiation site (change of charges reaches hillock)
    • 2. AP is inititated in small segment of axon:
    • -voltage gate Na channels open, Na flows in, channels inactivate (depolarize)
    • -Voltage gated K channel opens, K flows out causing repolarization, which closes K channels
    • 3. High conc of Na ions produces local current that spread down cytoplasm, bringing adjacent segment of axon to threshold
    • 4. AP is initiated in the adjacent SMALL segment of axon (spread slowly)
    • 5. Propagation
    • -Cycle is repeated: local current spreading from each AP creates an AP in the next adjacent segment
  117. Steps of saltatory propagation of AP:
    • 1. Threshold level of local current spreads to AP initiation site (hillock)
    • 2. Ap is initiated in small segment of axon
    • -Voltage gated Na channels open, flows in, channel inactivates
    • -Voltage gated K ion channel open, flows out causing repolar which closes channels
    • 3. High conc of Na ions produces local current that spread over longer distances down CYTOPLASM, bringing adjacent nodes of axon to threshold
    • -Schwann cell causes current to spread faster
    • 4. AP is initiated in these adjacent nodes
    • 5. Propagation:
    • -Cycle is repeated: local current spreading from each AP creates an AP in adjacent nodes
  118. Type A fibers:
    • Fast, large fibers
    • -Largest diameter, myelinated
    • -Motor neurons to skeletal muscles
    • -Fast sensory info (pain receptors)
  119. Type B fibers:
    • -Small diameter, myelinated, moderate speed
    • -Slow sensory info (warm/cold senses)
  120. Type C fibers:
    • -small diameter, UNMYELINATED, slowest
    • -Efferent neurons sending AP's to smooth and cardiac muscles, gland cells
    • -Slow sensory info (warm/cold senses)
  121. Synapse: cell to cell _________
    • junction
    • -Presynaptic cell (axon), and Postsynaptic cell (Neuron, muscle, or gland)
  122. Chemical synapses have ________ filled with neurotransmitters to cros synapse
  123. Electrical Synapse:
    • -Rare in NS
    • -Pre- and postsynaptic cells are bound by interlocking membrane potentials (GAP JUNCTIONS)
    • -Ion current flows directly from presynaptic cell to postsynaptic cell
  124. Chemical synapses:
    • -Neurotransmitters released from axon terminal of presynaptic neuron
    • -Neuro- diffuses across synaptic gap
    • -Neuro- binds to receptors of chemically gated channels in post- cell membrane
    • -Neuro- is removed from gap by diffusion, re-uptake, and or degradation (Acetlycholine esterase)
  125. Direct acting control of chemically gated ion channels:
    • -Fastest effect
    • -Neurotransmitter (like Ach) binds to receptro that is part of the gated channel (acts directly ont hat channel
  126. Indirect acting control of chemically gatred ion channels:
    • -Slow, takes longer to have effect
    • -Neurotransmitter binds to receptor that controls gated channel though secondary messenger produced by G PROTEIN or other intracellular enzymes
    • --Primary messenger: neurotransmitter
    • --Secondary: (opens channel) intracellular molecule (indirect receptors), often cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP
  127. The type of receptor determines the ___________
  128. Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential (EPSP):
    • -Gated channel opens for Na ion channels
    • -Depolarizing synaptic potential that promotes AP initiation by bringing axon hillock closer to threshold
    • ---Need SEVERAL to bring axon hillock to threshold for AP to occur
  129. Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential (IPSP):
    • -Gated channel opens for K or Cl ion channels
    • -Hyperpolarizing synaptic potantial that suppresses AP initiation
  130. Simplest level of info processing occurs at ________ level
    • cellular (cell body):needs to be strong to get to hillock
    • -Excitatory and inhibitory potentials are integrated and determine whether or not an AP is initiated
  131. EPSP and IPSP local ion currents combine through __________
  132. Temporal summation:
    Over time, EPSP's coming at the SAME time or continually
  133. Spatial summation:
    2 EPSP's coming from DIFFERENT TERMINALS
  134. Synaptic potentials (that trigger AP's) can only travel for a _________ distance
  135. PNS neurotransmitters:
    • -ACh- cholinergenic synapses
    • -Norepinephrine- adrenergic synapses
    • ----the synapses are what happnes when released
  136. Cholinergenic synapses:
    • -Presynaptic cell contains vesicles of ACh
    • -Postsynaptic cell has chemically gated ion channels and recepetors for ACh
    • -Synaptic cleft has ACh Esterase enzyme that breaks down ACh
  137. Function of cholinergenic synapses:
    • -AP reaches axon hillock
    • -Depolarization by AP opens Ca ion channels in axon terminal, allowing Ca to flow IN
    • -Ca ions cause vesicles to undergo EXOCYTOSIS, releasing ACh into synaptic cleft
    • -ACh drifts across synaptic cleft, binds to receptors, causing ion channels to open
    • -Synaptic delay: time required for Ca to rush inm neurotransmitter release and diffusion, and gated channels opening (small amount of time)
    • -ACh is broken down by AChE: Choline reabsorbed by presynaptice neurons and recycled
  138. When does synaptic fatigue occur?
    -When sotres of ACh are exhausted (neurons need a break like muscles)
  139. Postsynaptic receptor properties determine effect of neurotransmitter on __________ cell (receptor type)
    • postsynaptic
    • -Ex: ACh produces EPSPs at some synapses and IPSPs at other synapses due to diff types of postsynaptic receptors
  140. Amount of neurotransmitter released into _____ ______ and how long it remains determines amount of _____ or IPSP current in postsynaptic cell
    synaptic cleft, EPSP
  141. Agonists (mimetics):
    • -Mimic effect of neurotransmitter (stimulate receptor)
    • -Biind to post synaptic receptor
    • -Affect removal of NT from synaptic cleft
  142. Antagonists (blocking agents):
    • -Block effect of neurotransmitter (so they're not sent)
    • -Bind to post synaptic receptor
    • -Affect removal of NT from synaptic cleft
  143. Many neurotransmitters have more than one type or __________ ________ receptor
    Post synaptic
  144. Nicotinic cholinergenic receptors:
    • -Automatically binds choline
    • -Skeletal muscles, autonomic ganglia
    • -Excitatory
  145. Muscarinic choinergenic receptors:
    • -Excitatory OR inhibitory (depending on location)
    • -Visceral muscles, cardiac muscles, CNS
    • -Atropine is inhibitory
  146. Alpha adrenergic (adrenaline) receptors:
    • -Excitatory effect on smooth muscles of bv's of skin and viscera, causes constriction (from rush of adrenaline, high bp)
    • --Alpha blockers: reduce hypertension
  147. Beta adrenergic (adrenaline) receptors:
    • -Beta 1: excitatory on cardiac muscles
    • --Beta 1 blockers: reduce heartrate
    • -BEta 2: inhibitory on smooth muscles of respiratory tract, causes relaxation
    • --Beta 2 blockers: cause respiratory constriction
  148. Monoamine synapses: (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin)
    • -Monoamine oxidase degradation
    • ---MAO inhibitors (slow breakdown of epi and norepi)
    • -Selective reuptake into presynaptic terminal (anti-depressants)
    • ---SSRIs(selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors): serotonin remains in synaptic cleft
    • -Ecstasy (stimulates seratonin release), like being on hardcore antidepressants
    • -Cocaine (blocks reuptake of dopamine)
  149. Pathways connecting _______- centers to one another and to motor neurons.
    • Control
    • -Cortico spinal and cortico bulbas tracts (pathways or neurons going to spinal cord)
    • -MEdial pathways and lateral pathways
  150. Somatic motor neurons innervate skeletal muscles of _______, _________, and _______ trunk
    arms, legs, body
  151. Motor neuron bodies (in brainstem):
    -cranial nerve motor nuclei in medulla, pons, and midbrain
  152. Reflex:
    Direct sensory info to motor neurons
  153. Voluntary reflex:
    Cerebral cortex plans and initiates voluntary muscle movements
  154. Subconcious reflex:
    Various brainstem centers help control basic movements
  155. Cerebellum and basal nuclei modulate ________ muscle activity via input to subconcious and voluntary centers.
    • ongoing
    • -make it coordinated
  156. Reflexes are rapid, _______, predicatable responses to stimuli
  157. Neural reflex pathways involves sesnory input to ________ and motor neuron output to effectors.
  158. Reflexes can be modified by input from _____ ______ _______
    higher brain centers
  159. AP in sensory neuron propagates into ______
    • CNS
    • --NT releases onto all neurons on which sensory neuron synapses (divergence)
  160. Info processing occurs at ____ _____ of nervous system
    • many levels
    • -Spinal cord, brain, cerebellum, basal nuclei
  161. Motor neuron recieves __________ inputs that determine AP frequency (convergence)
    • -mulitple
    • -Strength and duration of skeletal muscle contraction determined by motor neuron AP frequency
  162. Monosynaptic reflex:
    • -Sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron
    • -Not many but some ex. patellar reflex (reflexively adjusts skeletal muscle length and tone)
    • ---part of the stretch reflex
  163. Polysynaptic reflex:
    • -AT LEAST one INTERNEURON between sensory afferent and motor efferent
    • -Longer delay between stimulus and response (bc goes thru interneuron)
    • -Multiple SC segments or BS nuclei interact to form more complex responses
  164. Postural reflex:
    Helps maintain upright position
  165. Sensory receptors are muscle __________ stretch receptors
    • spindles
    • --compensating refelx
  166. Sensory neuron axon has __________- synapse onto motor neuron
  167. Stretch reflex is a reflex that:
    Is constantly functioning to maintain proper length of body postural muscles
  168. Polysynaptic reflexes produce more ________ responses
  169. Polysynaptic reflexesinvolve pools of _________-
  170. Polysynaptic reflexes are __________ in distribution
  171. Polysynaptic reflexes involve __________ inhibition
    • reciprical
    • --ex, biceps, they contract when triceps extend)
  172. Polysynaptic reflexes involve muscle groups ___________ and __________ to stimulus
    ipsalateral, contralateral
  173. Ipsalateral:
    Same side
  174. Contralateral:
    Opposite side
  175. Polysynaptic reflexes may __________ to produce a coordinated response
    • cooperate
    • --back, gluteus, etc.
  176. Flexors ______
  177. Extensors ________
    exten and inhibited
  178. If the left leg is contralateral:
    flexors are inhibited and extensors stimulated
  179. Excitatory input (contraction) to flexor motor neurons and inhibitory input to extensor motor neurons of _________ leg
  180. Inhibitory input to flexor motor neuron's and excitatory input to extensors motor neurons of _________ leg
  181. Reinforcement:
    Facilitation that enhances spinal nerve and cranial nerve reflexes (sports)
  182. Inhibition:
    Suppresion that reduces spinal and cranial refelxes
  183. CNS damage can result in ________ reflexes
    • abnormal
    • -Hyperflexia of stretch reflex (ex patellar)
    • -Normal plantar relfex replaced by abnormal reflex called Babinski sign
  184. Babinski Sign:
    • Test used when suspected CNS damage
    • --Foot should curl when tested
  185. Primary motor cortex: __________ gyrus
    • Precentral gyrus
    • -Corresponds point nby point with specific regions of OPPOSITE sides of body
    • -Proportions of cortex developed to specific region of bosy proportional to number of motor units, not to body area size
  186. Everything with the brain ______ ______, because of the ____________________
    crosses over (decussate), precentral gyrus
  187. Premotor cortex= _________ motor association area
    • somatic
    • -Interpret incoming data and coordinate learned motor responses
    • -Speech center
    • -Eye field
  188. Corticospinal and Corticobulbar pathways provides ________ skeletal muscle control via rapid direct pathway
    • voluntary
    • -Cell body in primary motor cortex
    • -Axon decussates before synapsing onto motor neuron
  189. Corticobulbar tracts (in brain/cranial nerves) synapse onto motor neurons in ____________ nerve nuclei, and doesn't leave the brain
  190. Corticospinal tracts (anterior and lateral) synapse on motor neurons in the _________ gray horns of the spinal cord.
    • anterior
    • --Go into spinal cord, crosses over in brain stem and lower, many synapse AT anterior gray horn of exit location
  191. Vestibular nuclei:
    Senspry input from receptors for equilibrium, balance
  192. Tectum of mesencephalon:
    • -Superioir colliculi: visual input (have reflex from seeing something)
    • -Inferior colliculi: Auditory input (have refelx from hearing something)
  193. Reticular formation:(everything travles through)
    • -Input from many sensory and motor centers
    • --coordination, big for sleepong (send signals to relax)
  194. Basal Nuclei:
    • -Adjust motor commands issued in other processing centers
    • -Provide background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor movements
    • --Background positions of the trunk or limb
    • --Rythmic cycles of movement in walking or running
    • *not always concious, if damaged very awkward or jerky movement
    • *fluid movement
  195. Cerebellum: (no direct pathways to motor neurons)
    • -Monitors propioceptive (recpetors in muscles that detect stretching) info, visual info, and vestibular (controls dizziness) sensations
    • --Minimizes number of motor commands used to perform a movement
    • --Make movements efficient, smooth, and precisely controlled
    • --Compares ongoing activity with precisely learned activity patterns (muscle memory)
    • *coordination and balance
  196. Primary motor cortex:
    • -Pre-central gyrus: organized with control of foot muscles most medial, head muscles lateral (looking at one cerebral hemisphere)
    • -Directs voluntary movements: controls contralateral muscles (coming from right hemisphere controls left hand)
  197. Primary sensory cortex:
    • -Post-central gyrus
    • -Receives contralateral somatic sensory ino: touch, pressure, pain, etc. (Info that comes from area that controls somatic system-voluntary reactions)
  198. Visceral NS:
    • Involuntary
    • -Controlled by ANS
    • -digestion
  199. Olfactory cortex:
    • -sense of smell
    • -Medial surface of temporal lobe
  200. Gustatory cortex:
    • -sense of taste
    • -Insular lobe
  201. Visual cortex:
    • -sense of vision
    • -Occipital lobe
  202. Auditory cortex:
    • -sense of hearing
    • -Superior surface of temporal lobe
  203. Store info in _________________ _____________________ area/cortex
    Auditory association
  204. Association areas control ability to _________ sensory info and coordinate responses
    • -understand
    • -Somatic motor association:Premotor cortex, frontal eye field, speech center
    • -Somatatosensory association area (doesn't require first hand experience)
    • -Auditory association
    • -Visual association
  205. General interpretive area:
    • -aka Wernicke's area, gnostic area
    • -Receives info from all sensory areas
    • -Interprets what is seen of heard based on previous experience :personality
    • -Usually in Left cerebral hemisphere
  206. Who mapped the cerebral cortex
  207. The speech center:
    • -Regulates patterns of breathing and vocalization needed for normal speech
    • --->coordinates respiratory muscles, the muscles of larynx and pharynx, muslce sof tongue, cheeks, lips and jaw
    • -Damage to speech center would result in a person being able to make noise but NOT words
  208. Damage to the auditory association area could result in:
    A person having difficulty speaking,e ven though they know which words to use
  209. Prefontal cortex:
    • -Coordinates info from all association areas
    • -Performs abstract intellectual functions
    • -Predicts consequences of actions (anxiety, frustration, worry)
    • -Planning and prioritizing
    • *-Determination of appropriateness of actions for a given situation
    • -Not fully mature until early adulthood
  210. Speech impediment form damaged ___________ cortex
  211. Left hemisphere is responsible for:
    • -Language based skills
    • -Analytical, mathematical, logical
  212. Right hemisphere is responsible for:
    • -Spatial relationships and 3D analysis
    • -Identification of objects based on SENSORY INFO
    • -Recognizing faces
    • -Analyze emotional context of conversation or event
  213. Electroencephalogram (EEG):
    Measures brain activity (measures AP's that are sent)
  214. Alpha Waves:
    • Healthy resting adult
    • -normal waves
  215. Beta waves:
    Concentrating adult
  216. Theta Waves:
    normal CHILDREN, adults experiencing frustration or anxiety
  217. Delta waves:
    Normal during SLEEP
  218. Brain waves are related to activity of ____________ _______________ ___________
    Reticular Activating System
  219. Reticular Formation:
    • -Extends from medulla oblongata through mesencephalon of the brainstem
    • -Receives input from all parts of brain
    • -Contains many functional areas: ANS regualtory centers, Somatic motor control center of medial pathway, Reticualr Activiating System
    • ---Big role in sleep cycles
  220. If something travels up and down what must it trave through?
    Reticular formation
  221. Reticular Activating System (RAS):
    • -Important to arousal and maintenance of conciousness (keeps you alert and awake)
    • -RAS headquarters located in mesencephalon (mid brain along reticular formation)
    • -Receives input from multiple sources that act as a positive feedback loop to maintain consciousness: cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, sensory and motor pathways (all wake you up and keep you awake)
    • -Becomes LESS responsive to input and fatigues after many hours of activity
  222. The more input, the more _______- you are
  223. Conscious:
    • -Alertness
    • -Awareness of and attention to external events and stimuli
  224. Subconscious:
    • 1. Sleep: can be awoken by external stimuli
    • 2. Coma: can't be woken by external stimuli
  225. States of Sleep:
    • 1. Deep sleep (slow wave sleeo, NREM):
    • -Body is in relaxed state
    • -Cerebral cortex activity is LOW
    • -DELTA wavs
    • 2. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep:
    • -Active dreaming occurs (association neurons influence dreams)
    • -Muscle activity inhibited
    • -ALPHA waves
  226. Motivational System:
    • Sensory cortex, motor cortex, and associationa areas of the cortex enable you to perform complex tasks
    • --The LIMBIC system makes you want to do them
  227. Limbic system functions:
    • -Motivational system
    • -Behavioral drives
    • -Extablishing emotional states
    • -Facilitating mempry storage and retrieval
    • ---Pleasant memory/association makes you WANT to do something more
  228. Limbic system Components:
    • -Cortex of cingulate gyrus, dentate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus
    • -Hypothalamus
    • -Hippocampus and fornix
    • -Amygdaloid
  229. Cortex of cingulate gyrus, dentate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus:
    • link conscious intellectual function of cortex with autonomic and behavior
    • --conscious decision based on emoition
  230. Hypothalamus:
    Center responsible for rage, fear, pain, pleasure, sexual arousal
  231. Hippocampus and Fornix:
    Storage and retrieval of mempory
  232. Amygdaloid body:
    Links emotions to memories