Chapter 27

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kiefiukk
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4974
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Chapter 27
Updated:
2010-01-24 15:11:46
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Foundations in Microbiology 7th edition Talaro
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Applied and industrial microbiology key terms
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  1. Area that takes advantage of the microbes living in natural habitats to treat wastewater and bio-remediate damaged environments
    Applied microbiology
  2. Area that explores the use of microbes in making a wide variety of food, medical, manufacturing, and agricultural products.
    industrial microbiology
  3. The use of microbes or their products in the commercial or industrial realm
    biotechnology
  4. The extraction of energy through anaerobic degradation of substrates into simpler, reduced metabolites.

    In large industrial processes, fermentation can mean any use of microbial metabolism to manufacture organic chemicals or other products.
    fermentation
  5. removes bulkier maters and dits to let suspended particulates settle.
    primary phase of treatment
  6. removes sludge and is filtered
    secondary phase of treatment
  7. filters supernatant water and chlorinates
    tertiary phase of treatment
  8. Closed chambers used in a microbial process that converts organic sludge from waste treatment plants into useful fuels such as methane and hydrogen gases. also called bioreactors
    anaerobic digesters
  9. Addition to and growth of known cultures of microorganisms in food and produce desirable flavors, smells, or textures. includes cheeses, breads, alcoholic beverages, and pickles
    food fermentations
  10. Pure cultures of bacteria, molds, or yeasts inoculated into substrates for bulk processing, as in the preparation of fermented foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals.
    starter cultures
  11. to lighten food material by entrapping gas generated within it. example- the rising of bread from the CO2 produced by yeast or baking powder
    leaven
  12. The maturation process of beer, which is allowed to take place in large vats at a reduced temperature.
    lager
  13. A form of food-borne illness that is the result of ingesting microbial toxins given off by bacteria growing in the food. the toxins cause the main symptoms (ex is botulism).
    food intoxication
  14. A form of food-borne illness associated with ingesting living pathogenic microbes that invade the intestine. The damage caused by microbes growing in the body cause the main symptoms, which are usually gastroenteritis (ex is salmonellosis).
    food infection
  15. Heat treatment of perishable fluids such as milk, fruit juices, or wine to destroy heat-sensitive vegetative cells, followed by rapid chilling to inhibit growth of survivors and germination of spores. It prevents infection and spoilage.
    pasteurization
  16. The preservation of food that removes moisture needed by microbes for growth by exposing the food to dry, warm air.
    desiccation
  17. Small organic molecules that are intermediates in the stepwise biosynthesis or breakdown or macromolecules.
    metabolites

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