State two components that make up intervertebral disks?
nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus
The "blank" are extentsions of the pia mater: they attach to the dura mater to prevent movement of the spinal cord within the spinal canal.
the two "blank project from the vertebral body to meet with two laminae that continue posterior and medial to from the "blank" process.
The conus medullaris is located approximately at the level of what?
There are how many pairs of spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord?
What muscle group is considered the chief extensor of teh vertebralcolumn?
erector spinae muscle group
Which ligaments join the laminae of adjacent vertebral arches to help preserve the normal curvature of the spine?
Describe the cervical plexus and list major motor branch.
the cervical plexuses arises from the venral rami of C1-C4 to innervate the muscles of the neck and should. The major motor branch of the cervical plexuses is the phrenic nerve. the phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm and is formed by C4 and C5 motor fibers.
Which veins drain the vertebral bodies?
Describe the costal faceets of the thoracic vertebra.
the costal facets are located on the body and transverse process, which articulate with the ribs. the head of the rib articulates with the vertebral bodies at the costovertebral joints and the tubercle of the ribs articulates with the transvers processes at the costotranverse joints.
The thyroid is located at the level of what?
What cartilidge forms the base of the larynx?
What are the three parts of the pharynx?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, larygopharynx
Briefly discribe the valleculae and why it is important?
pouchlike openings on each side of the tongue/epiglottis where common site for foreign objects to be within the neck
The vertebral artery originates from which?
the external jugular veins drain into the "blank" veins on either side of the neck?
Describe the carotid shealth.
compartment that encloses the common and internal carotid arteries, internal jugular vein and assoiciated lyph nodes and vagus nerve
the esophagus enters the abdomen thu which opening?
What are some typical characteristic of the thyroid gland?
Axially it appears wedge shaped positioned close to the trachea, located at the level of teh cricoid cartiliage, produces hormones assoiciated with the regulation of metabolic rates
In the neck, the external carotid is anterior to the internal carotid artery. T/F
Symmetry is not important in lookin at images of the neck.T/F
The organs of teh neck are attatched to one another by connective tissue. T/F
The trachea appears hyperlucent on CT axial images. T/F
What is the bifurcation of the trachea called?
What is the function of the esophagus?
allows food to travel from the mouth to the stomach
describe the common carotid arteries?
bifurcate at C3/4, are medial to the veins, are smaller than the veins
spinal nerve connections to the spinal cord that only contain motor axons
holes in the transverse process of the cervical (except for C1) for the passage of vertebral blood vessels
T/F: the esophagus is posterior to the trachea
When does the pharynx divide into the trachea and esphagus
u shaped bone in neck
salivary gland found beneath the tounge
blood returing from the brain along with cerebrals spinal fluids goes into the dural sinus and then into the internal jugular veins
is the thyroid gland inferior or superior to the thyroid cartilage
the odontoid is actually from the body of c1
axially the spinal cord resibles?
what ligament of the spines lies inside the vertebral canal
posterior longitudinal ligament
mri is the best thing to visualize fractures in the c spine
T/F symmetry is important when looking at images of the neck
the organs of the neck are attached to one another by connecting tissue?
what is the function of the esophagus?
for food to travel from the neck to the stomach
small masses of lymphoids
describe the costal facets of the vertbrea
located on the body and tranverse process of the thoracic vertebrea which articulate with the ribs. the head of the rib articulates with the vertebral bodies at the costovertebral joints articulate and the tubercles of the ribs articulate with the transverse process of teh costotransverse joint
small opening in the central of the spinal cord; contains cerebral spinal fluid
3 of the 4 fused bones and the distal end of the vertebral column AKA the tailbone
muscle in floor of the posterior triangle of the neck; extends from the transverse process to C3 to C6 vertebrea to the first rib
anterior scalene muscle
holes or spaces formed from inferior and superior vertebral notches for the transmission of spinal nerves and blood vessels
Nerve plexus between the anterior and middle scalene muscles in the neck that is derived from the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 through T1
Odontoid process; upward projecting process on the second cervical vertebra
Major supporting ligament of the vertebral column; extends along the anterior surface of vertebral bodies from C1 to the sacrum
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Articular surfaces on the bodies and transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae for articulation with ribs
Prominent ridge on the visceral surface of the first segment of the sacrum; marks the beginning of the true pelvis
Muscle that extends from cervical vertebrae to the medial border of the scapula and elevates the scapula
Levator scapulae muscle
Posterior projection from the laminae of vertebrae
Vessel that arises from the subclavian artery and ascends the neck within the transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae then passes through the foramen magnum to supply oxygenated blood to the posterior portion of the brain
Intermediate layer of intrinsic muscles associated with the vertebral column; includes the iliocostalis, the longissimus, and the spinalis muscles
Erector spinae muscles
Concave surface on the upper and lower margins of the pedicles on vertebrae; the superior and inferior vertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae meet to form intervertebral foramina that transmit spinal nerves and blood vessels
The tapered distal end of the spinal cord
Cordlike extension of pia mater that extends to the coccyx and is anchored there
Collection of spinal nerves that extend beyond the conus medullaris at the distal end of the spinal cord
A thin layer or flat plate
Dorsal, ventral, and lateral regions of gray matter in the spinal cord; contain the terminal portions of sensory neurons, entire interneurons, and dendrites and cell bodies of motor neurons
horn of gray matter in spinal cord
Short bands of elastic fibers that connect the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
Articulation between the sacrum and the ilium
The fibrous outer part of the intervertebral disc
Fibrocartilaginous pads between the vertebrae in the vertebral column
Nerve plexus that is derived from the ventral rami of cervical nerves C1 through C4
Superiorly and inferiorly directed projections from the vertebral arch; inferior articular processes of one vertebra articulate with the superior articular processes of the next vertebra
Peripheral nerves that arise from each segment of the spinal cord; there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves-8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal
Three vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the spinal cord; one anterior and two posterior spinal arteries
Network of nerve fibers formed by the ventral rami of spinal nerves L4, L5, and S1 through S4; branches innervate the external genitalia, pelvic diaphragm, posterior thigh, leg, and foot
Nerve plexus that arises from the ventral rami of the first four lumbar segments of the spinal cord; formed within the psoas major muscle
Central opening in a vertebra formed by the body anteriorly and the vertebral arch posteriorly; surrounds the spinal cord
Upward projecting process on the second cervical vertebra, also called dens
Posterior curved portion of a vertebra; formed by the transverse processes, the spinous process, the pedicles, and laminae, and the superior and inferior articular processes
Anteriorly convex curve of the vertebral column in the neck region; develops after birth
Lateral projections from vertebrae
Second cervical vertebra
Openings in the lateral masses of the sacrum for the passage of nerves
Supraspinous and interspinous ligaments from C7 to the occipital bone
One of the muscles in the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck; extends from cervical vertebrae to the second rib and elevates the rib
posterior scalene muscle
First cervical vertebra
One of the muscles in the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck; extends from the cervical vertebrae to the first rib and elevates the rib
middle scalene muscle
Spinal nerve connection to the spinal cord that contains only motor axons
An enlargement in the dorsal root of spinal nerves that contains the cell bodies of afferent neurons
dorsal root ganglion
Spinal nerve connection to the spinal cord; contains only sensory nerve fibers
Superior portion of the vertebral column; characterized by bifid spinous processes and transverse foramina
The inner portion of an intervertebral disc; surrounded by the annulus fibrosus
One of the major supporting ligament of the vertebral column; extends along the posterior surface of vertebral bodies, within the vertebral canal, from C1 to the sacrum