cross section

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cross section
2010-11-16 11:38:05
cross section

cross section
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  1. name the artery that runs the entire lenght of the spinal cord and supplies the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord?
    anterior spinal artery
  2. The ___ is a large, complex network of nerves arising from the five ventral rami of C5- C7 and T1.
    brachial plexus
  3. Where is the phrenic nerve located?
    in the cervical plexus
  4. What is the largest nerve in the body?
    sciatic nerve
  5. What is the most inferior portion of the spinal cord and what level is it located at?
    conus medularris and L1-L2
  6. What are the for major nerve plexuses?
    cervical, brachial, lumbar and sacral
  7. the cuada equina is AKA______? and exits through the ______ foramina?
    horsetail; lumbosacral
  8. what strong ligaments are present on either side of the spinous process, that help preserve the normal curvature of the spine?
    ligamentum flava
  9. The splenius muscles originate on the spinous process of_______ and the inferior half of the ligamentum nuchae?
  10. The PLL is____ and slightly_____ that the ALL.
    narrower and weaker
  11. What are the 3 vertical columns that make up the erector spinae muscle group?
    iliocstalis, longissimus and spinalis
  12. What are the 3 unique features of the ALL?
    • Thicker that the thoracic region
    • Best seen on a saggital MRI image
    • Maintain stability of the joints and helps prevent hyperextension of the vertebral bodies
  13. Name 3 structures which form the vertebral arch:
    2 pedicles, 2 lamina, 2 transverse processes, 2 superior articular processes, 2 inferior articular processes and spinous process
  14. The odontoid process projects into the________to act as a pivod for rotational movement.
    anterior ring of the altas
  15. what articulates to form costovertebral joints and the costotransvers joints?
    • vertebral body and head of the rib(costovertebral joint)
    • Tubercle of rib and transverse process(costotransverse joint)
  16. T/F: The sacral section consists of five vertebrae that are fused
  17. How many vertebrae make up the thoracic section?
  18. What are the soft tissue organs of the neck?
    pharynx, larynx, esophagus, trachea,
  19. What connects the middle to the nasopharynx?
    opening of the auditory tube
  20. What are the pharyngeal tonsils frequently referred to as, as well as when they are enlarged?
  21. What are the boundaries of the nasopharynx?
    posteriorly:clivus and upper cervical spine. inferiorly:soft palate
  22. A superifical muscle located on the posterior portion of the neck and acts to elevate the scapula?
  23. why is the right internal jugular vein larger than the left?
    it is the continuation of the sigmoid sinus of the head
  24. what does the vertebral artery supply?
    supply blood to the posterior aspect of the brain
  25. where does the right common carotid artery arise from?
    right brachiocephalic artery
  26. name the muscular tube that extends down the laryngophayrnx to the cardiac oriface of the stomach?
  27. Name two sphincters of the esophagus?
    esophageal and cardiac
  28. Where is the trachea located?
    immediately anterior to the esophagus
  29. What cartilidge is the largest and most superior to the larynx?
  30. How is the epiglottis different from the other cartilidges in the larynx?
    it is elastic and allows for movement
  31. What are the three pairs of salivary glands and what is the largest?
    parotid, submandibular, sublingual and parotid is the largest
  32. what endocrine gland is located at the ciricoid cartilidge?
    thyroid gland
  33. What is located on the posterior portion of the thyroid lobes and usually four in number?
    parathyroid glands
  34. how many lymph nodes are on each side of the neck?
  35. what are clustered in regions throughout the vessels of the lymphatic system?
    lymph nodes
  36. Which muscle turns the head from side to side and to flex the neck?
    posterior scalene muscle?
  37. What are the four tongue muscles?
    genioglossus, hyonglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus
  38. What is the role of the longitudinal muscle?
    elevate larynx and pharynx during swallowing and speaking
  39. What muscles control the position and tension of the vocal cords?
  40. A ligament running along the anterior aspects of the body?
    anterior longitudinal ligament
  41. a ligament running along the medial aspects of teh laminae of teh vertebra?
    ligamentum flava
  42. A ligament running along the tips of the spinous process of the vertebrae from C7 to the occipital bone?
    ligamentum nuchae
  43. a ligament along the posterior aspects of the bodies of the vertebrae?
    posterior longitudinal ligament
  44. a ligament runing along the tips of the spinous process of the vertebrae from C7 to the sacrum?
    supraspinous ligament
  45. List the structures that make up the vertebral arch?
    2pedicles, 2 laminae, 1 spinous process, 2 transverse process, 2 superior, 2 inferior articular process
  46. State two components that make up intervertebral disks?
    nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus
  47. The "blank" are extentsions of the pia mater: they attach to the dura mater to prevent movement of the spinal cord within the spinal canal.
    denticulate ligaments
  48. the two "blank project from the vertebral body to meet with two laminae that continue posterior and medial to from the "blank" process.
    pedicles, spinous
  49. The conus medullaris is located approximately at the level of what?
  50. There are how many pairs of spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord?
  51. What muscle group is considered the chief extensor of teh vertebralcolumn?
    erector spinae muscle group
  52. Which ligaments join the laminae of adjacent vertebral arches to help preserve the normal curvature of the spine?
    ligamentum flava
  53. Describe the cervical plexus and list major motor branch.
    the cervical plexuses arises from the venral rami of C1-C4 to innervate the muscles of the neck and should. The major motor branch of the cervical plexuses is the phrenic nerve. the phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm and is formed by C4 and C5 motor fibers.
  54. Which veins drain the vertebral bodies?
    Basivertebral veins
  55. Describe the costal faceets of the thoracic vertebra.
    the costal facets are located on the body and transverse process, which articulate with the ribs. the head of the rib articulates with the vertebral bodies at the costovertebral joints and the tubercle of the ribs articulates with the transvers processes at the costotranverse joints.
  56. The thyroid is located at the level of what?
    circoid cartilidge
  57. What cartilidge forms the base of the larynx?
  58. What are the three parts of the pharynx?
    nasopharynx, oropharynx, larygopharynx
  59. Briefly discribe the valleculae and why it is important?
    pouchlike openings on each side of the tongue/epiglottis where common site for foreign objects to be within the neck
  60. The vertebral artery originates from which?
  61. the external jugular veins drain into the "blank" veins on either side of the neck?
  62. Describe the carotid shealth.
    compartment that encloses the common and internal carotid arteries, internal jugular vein and assoiciated lyph nodes and vagus nerve
  63. the esophagus enters the abdomen thu which opening?
    esphogeal hiatus
  64. What are some typical characteristic of the thyroid gland?
    Axially it appears wedge shaped positioned close to the trachea, located at the level of teh cricoid cartiliage, produces hormones assoiciated with the regulation of metabolic rates
  65. In the neck, the external carotid is anterior to the internal carotid artery. T/F
  66. Symmetry is not important in lookin at images of the neck.T/F
  67. The organs of teh neck are attatched to one another by connective tissue. T/F
  68. The trachea appears hyperlucent on CT axial images. T/F
  69. What is the bifurcation of the trachea called?
  70. What is the function of the esophagus?
    allows food to travel from the mouth to the stomach
  71. describe the common carotid arteries?
    bifurcate at C3/4, are medial to the veins, are smaller than the veins
  72. spinal nerve connections to the spinal cord that only contain motor axons
    ventral root
  73. holes in the transverse process of the cervical (except for C1) for the passage of vertebral blood vessels
    vertebral foramina
  74. T/F: the esophagus is posterior to the trachea
  75. When does the pharynx divide into the trachea and esphagus
  76. u shaped bone in neck
  77. vertebral prominence
  78. costovertebral joint
    thoracic vertebrea
  79. salivary gland found beneath the tounge
  80. adams apple
    thyroid cartilidge
  81. blood returing from the brain along with cerebrals spinal fluids goes into the dural sinus and then into the internal jugular veins
  82. is the thyroid gland inferior or superior to the thyroid cartilage
  83. the odontoid is actually from the body of c1
  84. axially the spinal cord resibles?
    an H
  85. what ligament of the spines lies inside the vertebral canal
    posterior longitudinal ligament
  86. mri is the best thing to visualize fractures in the c spine
  87. T/F symmetry is important when looking at images of the neck
  88. the organs of the neck are attached to one another by connecting tissue?
  89. what is the function of the esophagus?
    for food to travel from the neck to the stomach
  90. small masses of lymphoids
  91. describe the costal facets of the vertbrea
    located on the body and tranverse process of the thoracic vertebrea which articulate with the ribs. the head of the rib articulates with the vertebral bodies at the costovertebral joints articulate and the tubercles of the ribs articulate with the transverse process of teh costotransverse joint
  92. small opening in the central of the spinal cord; contains cerebral spinal fluid
    central canal
  93. 3 of the 4 fused bones and the distal end of the vertebral column AKA the tailbone
  94. muscle in floor of the posterior triangle of the neck; extends from the transverse process to C3 to C6 vertebrea to the first rib
    anterior scalene muscle
  95. holes or spaces formed from inferior and superior vertebral notches for the transmission of spinal nerves and blood vessels
    intervertebral foramina
  96. Nerve plexus between the anterior and middle scalene muscles in the neck that is derived from the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 through T1
    Brachial plexus
  97. Odontoid process; upward projecting process on the second cervical vertebra
  98. Major supporting ligament of the vertebral column; extends along the anterior surface of vertebral bodies from C1 to the sacrum
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
  99. Articular surfaces on the bodies and transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae for articulation with ribs
    Costal facets
  100. Prominent ridge on the visceral surface of the first segment of the sacrum; marks the beginning of the true pelvis
    Sacral promontory
  101. Muscle that extends from cervical vertebrae to the medial border of the scapula and elevates the scapula
    Levator scapulae muscle
  102. Posterior projection from the laminae of vertebrae
    Spinous process
  103. Vessel that arises from the subclavian artery and ascends the neck within the transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae then passes through the foramen magnum to supply oxygenated blood to the posterior portion of the brain
    Vertebral artery
  104. Intermediate layer of intrinsic muscles associated with the vertebral column; includes the iliocostalis, the longissimus, and the spinalis muscles
    Erector spinae muscles
  105. Concave surface on the upper and lower margins of the pedicles on vertebrae; the superior and inferior vertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae meet to form intervertebral foramina that transmit spinal nerves and blood vessels
    Vertebral notch
  106. The tapered distal end of the spinal cord
    Conus medullaris
  107. Cordlike extension of pia mater that extends to the coccyx and is anchored there
    Filum terminale
  108. Collection of spinal nerves that extend beyond the conus medullaris at the distal end of the spinal cord
    Cauda equina
  109. A thin layer or flat plate
  110. Dorsal, ventral, and lateral regions of gray matter in the spinal cord; contain the terminal portions of sensory neurons, entire interneurons, and dendrites and cell bodies of motor neurons
    horn of gray matter in spinal cord
  111. Short bands of elastic fibers that connect the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
    ligamentum flava
  112. Articulation between the sacrum and the ilium
    SI joint
  113. The fibrous outer part of the intervertebral disc
    Anulus fibrosus
  114. Fibrocartilaginous pads between the vertebrae in the vertebral column
    Intervertebral disc
  115. Nerve plexus that is derived from the ventral rami of cervical nerves C1 through C4
    cervical plexus
  116. Superiorly and inferiorly directed projections from the vertebral arch; inferior articular processes of one vertebra articulate with the superior articular processes of the next vertebra
    articular processes
  117. Peripheral nerves that arise from each segment of the spinal cord; there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves-8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal
    spinal nerves
  118. Three vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the spinal cord; one anterior and two posterior spinal arteries
    spinal arteries
  119. Network of nerve fibers formed by the ventral rami of spinal nerves L4, L5, and S1 through S4; branches innervate the external genitalia, pelvic diaphragm, posterior thigh, leg, and foot
    sacral plexus
  120. Nerve plexus that arises from the ventral rami of the first four lumbar segments of the spinal cord; formed within the psoas major muscle
    lumbar plexus
  121. Central opening in a vertebra formed by the body anteriorly and the vertebral arch posteriorly; surrounds the spinal cord
    vertebral foramen
  122. Upward projecting process on the second cervical vertebra, also called dens
    odontoid proces
  123. Posterior curved portion of a vertebra; formed by the transverse processes, the spinous process, the pedicles, and laminae, and the superior and inferior articular processes
    vertebral arch
  124. Anteriorly convex curve of the vertebral column in the neck region; develops after birth
    cervical curvature
  125. Lateral projections from vertebrae
    transverse processes
  126. Second cervical vertebra
  127. Openings in the lateral masses of the sacrum for the passage of nerves
    sacral foramina
  128. Supraspinous and interspinous ligaments from C7 to the occipital bone
    ligamentum nuchea
  129. One of the muscles in the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck; extends from cervical vertebrae to the second rib and elevates the rib
    posterior scalene muscle
  130. First cervical vertebra
  131. One of the muscles in the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck; extends from the cervical vertebrae to the first rib and elevates the rib
    middle scalene muscle
  132. Spinal nerve connection to the spinal cord that contains only motor axons
    ventral root
  133. An enlargement in the dorsal root of spinal nerves that contains the cell bodies of afferent neurons
    dorsal root ganglion
  134. Spinal nerve connection to the spinal cord; contains only sensory nerve fibers
    dorsal root
  135. Superior portion of the vertebral column; characterized by bifid spinous processes and transverse foramina
    cervical vertebrea
  136. The inner portion of an intervertebral disc; surrounded by the annulus fibrosus
    nucleus polposa
  137. One of the major supporting ligament of the vertebral column; extends along the posterior surface of vertebral bodies, within the vertebral canal, from C1 to the sacrum
    Posterior longitudinal ligament