social psych

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social psych
2010-11-15 19:07:08
social psych

test 2
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  1. obedience
    • state or quality of being obedient
    • things that cause obedience to rise are uncertainty, time pressure, distance of authority, distance of victims, gradual escalation, social learning, conformity, agentic state, routinization, dehumanization, automatic cognitive processes, and threats of punishment
  2. social evolution theory in obedience
    • societies are organized into hierarchies to survive
    • efficienct especially during war, conflict, or emergencies
    • reduces conflict within groups especially when resources are scarce
  3. malevolent authority
    authority that is used for bad
  4. Adolph Eichmann
    • carried out orders of the Holocaust
    • controversy over interrogation because he seemed like a nice normal guy that was just following orders
    • interest in Eichmann caused Milgram to study obedience to malevolent authority
  5. agentic state
    • the psychological state the obedience subject is in when he or she is obeying authority
    • reduced feelings of responsibility for making decisions because of duty to obey
  6. gradual escalation
    when intensity demands increase over time
  7. routinization
    get in habit of focusing on details and procedures rather than meaning
  8. dehumanization
    dehumanize the victim in order to hurt them easier
  9. death instinct
    • an instinctual drive towards death
    • leads to aggressive actions
    • Freud's idea on aggression
  10. aggression
    • the negative side of human behavior towards others
    • increases with frustration
    • aggressive cues increase aggression
  11. social evolution theory of aggression
    aggressive behavior evolved because it aided survival and reproduction
  12. displaced aggression
    • taking it out on something or someone else
    • occurs because you can't always aggress on the cause of your aggression
    • likely targets are more convenient, lower status people and lower power
  13. frustration
    • individual is thwarted on the way to a goal
    • this leads to aggression
  14. catharsis
    • the idea that aggression can be released through aggressive behavior
    • true for anger but not aggression
    • therapy: empty chair, write letter, punch pillow
  15. observational learning
    • social learning of aggression by observing others and imitating
    • notice consequences of other's aggression
  16. imitation
    • imitating others behaviors through observational learning
    • increases aggressive acts
  17. reactive aggression
    • hostile gut level reactions
    • not planned- automatic cognitive processes
    • lash out when frustrated (kick the pop machine)
  18. proactive aggression
    • deliberated, calculated
    • ex: bullying to steal lunch money
    • controlled cognitive processes
  19. numbing / desensitization
    getting so used to something you do not recognize it
  20. deindividuation
    • state of decreased self awareness
    • increased feelings of anonymity
    • temporarily lose sense of individual identity
    • promotes automatic processing
    • occurs in crowds, night time, costumes
  21. dehumanization
    • victim is perceived as less than human
    • distance from victim
    • can be cause and effect of aggression
  22. relative deprivation
    frustration results from comparing yourself to others
  23. victim derogation
    • make fun of victim
    • call names
  24. culture of honor
    • collective identity
    • defend honor of group
  25. emotional empathy
    being able to feel what someone else is feeling
  26. beauty = goodness stereotype
    people unconsciously assume that a physically attractive person has other desirable traits
  27. social profit
    association with attractive others enhances your own image
  28. assimilation effect
    • occurs when attractive level of someone is close to others around them
    • if the others are slightly better looking, the level gets assimilated to the person
    • they are rated higher
  29. contrast effect
    • an average person surrounded by models=a big contrast
    • people notice the difference and the average person is rated even lower
  30. self monitoring
    • tendency to regulate your social behavior to meet the demands of the situation
    • high self monitors: tailor behavior to make good impressions on others and are more influenced by physical attractiveness
    • low self monitors: behave more consistently across situations and are less influenced by physical attractiveness
  31. stereotype
    a simplified conception or image held in common by members of a group
  32. prejudice
    • assuming with or without awareness
    • general negative attitudes
  33. discrimination
    making a distinction in favor of or against a person or thing based on the group, category, or class they belong to
  34. outgroup homogeneity effect
    we tend to see members of outgroups as more similar to one another than members of our own group
  35. own race effect
    you recognize your own race best
  36. ingroup favoritism
    tendency to see one's own group as better on any number of dimensions and to allocate rewards to ones own group
  37. illusory correlation
    • based on salience and based on expectations
    • focus on unusual people in minority groups
    • focus on negative like incompetent behavior
    • overestimate minority and negative
    • produces negative stereotypes of minority groups
  38. distinctiveness effect
    • focus on unusual characteristics of people within a context
    • assume that statistically uncommon characteristics are more central to that person's identity
  39. spotlight effect
    discomfort with negative behavior of a member of your own minority group
  40. minimal group
    ingroup is favored when humans are divided into groups
  41. minimal group effect
    • minimal groups are labels that don't matter
    • you favor your ingroup though
  42. social evolution theory of reducing stereotype
    ingroup favoritism promoted survival and reproduction
  43. social identity theory on reducing prejudice
    ingroup favoritism is part of positive self image and identity
  44. automatic implicit prejudice
    effects of knowing negative stereotypes and attitudes
  45. controlled explicit prejudice
    effects of believing negative stereotypes attitudes and are self reported
  46. IAT
    • implicit association test
    • associations and speed are measured to show preferences towards a certain group
  47. stereotype threat
    apprehensiveness among minority about confirming the existing negative stereotype
  48. Ultimate Attribution Error
    • perpetuates negative stereotypes of out groups even when meeting counter stereotypical members of outgroups
    • attributions for negative behavior : outgroup is the character of the entire group; ingroup is the character of the individual, situation, exceptions
    • attributions for positive behavior: outgroup is situation; ingroup is character of entire group
  49. authoritatian personality
    • high prejudice
    • against all minorities
    • conventional values
  50. facism
    • power
    • having control
    • authoritarian
  51. F scale
    • facism scale
    • control scale
  52. anti semitism
    prejudice hostility or discrimination against jews
  53. ethnocentrism
    the belief in the inherent superiority of ones own ethnic group or culture
  54. scapegoat
    a person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place
  55. social dominance orientation
    put yourself with others who are socially powerful
  56. Sherif et al Robbers Cave
    • well adjusted 11 year old boys from Oklahoma City
    • ingroup formations of rattlers or eagles
    • initially unaware of the others existence
    • created intergroup hostility and competition frustration resulted in intergroup hostility and conflict
    • First Method was Contact: resulted in self segregation resistance and more conflict
    • Next method was Cooperation toward common goal: (mutual interdependence) staged crises made them interact, another crisis made the groups gradually interact more willingly and harmoniously
    • more positive attitudes toward outgroups and friendships with each other formed and remained positive until end of camp
  57. Bandura bobo doll study
    • kids imitated video of bobo doll and engaged in other aggressive ways
    • they copied and were innovative too