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the daily intake that meets the needs of almost all healthy individuals in a specified group
the basis for developing the RDA, is the intake that meets the needs of half of the individuals in the reference population
a guideline used when not enough scientific data are available to establish an RDA
a new guideline that sets the maximum nutrient intake that is unlikely to pose a risk of toxicity in healthy individuals
Early observations- Vitamins were
largely discovered while searching for cures for classic diseases to be associated with dietary deficiences.
a hemorrhagic disease characterized by bleeding in joints and other tissues and by the breakdown of fragile capillaries under normal BP.
Early Animal Experiments
1906- Dr. Frederich Hopkins of Cambridge University, group of rats a synthetic mixture of protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral salts and water. All became ill and died.
Era of Vitamin Discovery
Most discovered during first half of 1900s-vitamin-vital amine...
- 1. It must be a vital, organic substance that is not a carb, fat, or protein and must be necessary in only extremely small amts.
- 2. It cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient quantities to sustain life, so it must be supplied by the diet.
Functions of Vitamins
- 1. components of coenzymes
- 2. antioxidants
- 3. hormones that affect gene expression
- 4. a component of cell membranes
- 5. a component of the light sensitive rhodopsin molecule in the the eyes Vit.A
gluelike in its capacity to add tensile strength to body structures.
means without scurvy
Fat Soluble Vitamins is
intestinal cells absorb fat soluble vitamins with fat and incorporate both the fat and fat soluble vitamins into chylomicrons
Water soluble Vitamins is
intestinal cells easily absorb water soluble vitamins.
Vitamin A (Retinol) - Fat Soluble Vitamins
- Functions in the body
- a. vision
- b. tissue strength and immunity- help maintain healthy epithelial tissue
- c. growth- retinoic acid and retinol
Vitamin A Requirements
- 1. preformed A or provitamin A
- 2. its storage in the body
Vitamin A- Food Forms and Units of Measure
- 1. preformed vitamin A or retinol is the active vitamin found in foods derived from animals.
- 2. Provitamin A or beta carotene, is a pigment in yellow, orange, and deep green fruits or vegetables that the human body can convert to retinol.
the chemical name of Vitmain A.
organic pigments found in the plant
a group name for three red and yellow pigments found in dark green and yellow vegetables and fruit.
Body Storage- Liver
- can store large amts of retinol.
- 1. healthy- liver stores more than 50% of ingested retinol and contains approx. 90% of the bodys total store.
Deficiency Disease- Adequate Vitamin A
- 1. Xerosis - itching, burning and red inflamed eyelids
- 2. Xerophthalmia or blindess caused by severe
condition created by ecessive vitamin a intake, includes joint pain, thickening of long bones, loss of hair, and jaundice.
Vitamin A- Food Source
fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter and cream
unstable when exposed to heat and oxygen.