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What are drugs used for?
An agent intended for use in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure or prevention of disease in man or in other animals.
Zidovadine, Gold Salts
Tensilon?, Persantine IV?
Diagnosis of Disease
Rauwolfia serpentina shrub
Foxglove plant (digitalis purpurea)
Poppy (papaver somniferum)
Yew evergreen tree (taxus brevifolia)
Semisynthetic or partially synthetic compounds
Insulin, Epoetin alpha, Interferon beta-1b
FDA Pregnancy Categories
- A, no risk
- B, Risk cannot be ruled out
- C, Caution is advised
- D, Is a definite risk
- X, Do not use
Drugs not deemed safe for use without direct medical supervision. Stock bottles of these drugs must contain the symbol ��Rx Only�� or the following statement printed on the label: ��Caution: Federal Law prohibits dispensing without a prescription.��
Black Box Warning
On the package insert, the known problems associated with the use of drug.
describes the molecular structure of the drug.
a "United States Adopted Name" (USAN) is selected by the USAN Council
The study and identification of natural sources of drugs
A Greek word meaning a magic spell, remedy, or poison that used in early records to represent the concept of a drug.
Entrance of the drug into the blood stream.
Factors That Affect Absorption
- Solubility of Drug
- Site of Administration, Oral, Parenteral, Topical
- Drug Ionization, un-ionized drug enhanced drug absorption.
- Drugs already in solution will be absorbed faster
- The smaller the particle size of the drug, the faster the rate of dissolution and absorption
The process by which a drug; is carried to the various tissues and organs of the body.
The enzymes responsible for drug metabolism
The process by which materials, including drugs, are removed from the body to the external environment.
Sites of Excretion
Kidney, Feces, Lung, Sweat, Tears, Saliva., Breast Milk
What is first pass metabolism? What routes of administration can be used to avoid this effect?
After oral administration, all drugs are carried by the bloodstream to the liver before they are distributed to other tissues or organs. Some drugs are metabolized significantly on this first pass through the liver. This is known as the first-pass metabolism. It can greatly reduce the amount of active drug that reaches the site of action.
What is half life?
the time it takes 1/2 of the drug in the body to be eliminated.
List several reasons for coating tablets.
- Taste, bad taste and foul odors
- Stability: oxygen, light, or moisture in the atmosphere
- Prevent Contact with Drug: Aspirin - Ecotrin?
- Separate Active Ingredients: Two ingredients
- Control Rate of Release: alter the rate of release of a drug
- Control the Site of Release: specific sites
- Improve Appearance: have a visually pleasing product
- Prevent Loss of Volatile Ingredients
What are the reasons for enteric coating?
- Enhance drug stability and to control the rate of drug release.
- Prevent gastric degradation or digestion
- Prevent gastric mucosal irritation (Ecotrin?, Ery-Tab?)
- Prevent dilution of drug prior to reaching its site of action (Azulfidine?)
- Provide delayed action
- Control or monitor physiological location of drug delivery
What is compliance? How do coatings and extended action preparations relate to compliance?
A patient��s adherence to the dose schedule and other particular requirements of the specified regimen.