RHS Part 1

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RHS Part 1
2010-11-17 17:31:54

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  1. Identify the basic difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms
    • Gymnosperms
    • seeds are naked do not enclosed in an ovary
    • produce cones as means of sexual reproduction
    • leaves are structually adapted to prevent water loss

    • Angiosperms
    • seed protected by an ovary that is protected by a fruit
    • flowers are a means of sexual reproduction
  2. Describe the main differences between monocotyledon and dicotyledon external features
    • Monocot
    • seed - one cotyledon
    • flower - in three and sixes
    • leaves- usually narrow parrell veined
    • roots- fibrous and adventitious arising from stem base

    • Dicot
    • seed - two cotyledon
    • flower - in fours and fives
    • leaves - broad leaved branced vein
    • roots- taproot with secondary roots
  3. State the reason why a universal system of naming plants is important
    it provides a universal naming system which can be used anywhere in the world regardless of language and gives each plant a unique identity
  4. Define the term Genus, Species, Cultivar
    • Genus - a group of plants which share a wide range of characteristics names are printed with a initial captital letter
    • Species - groups of plants with in the genus which have distint differences (color etc) they are able to breed together
    • Cultivar- is specially bred variation of species for color,size,yield
  5. Describe the five stages of plant life cycle
    • Seed- resting restistant propagation
    • Juvenilee- fast growing will not produce flower or fruit,propagation,vigorous lefaf growth
    • Adult-Flowering bearing fruit
    • Senescence-decay
    • Death- decay good for wildlife recycled remains provide nutrients and organic matter to the soil.
  6. Define the term
    Annual, Perinnial,Biennial,Ephemeral
    • Annual - plant germinates,flowers and dies within a year eg basil
    • Perinnial- lives for more than two year eg apple tree
    • Biennial - Flowers in the second year eg foxgloves
    • Ephemeral- life cycle in 6-8 weeks eg Annual Meadow grass
  7. Define the term hardy, half-hardy, tender applied to annuals
    • Hardy- can withstand frost eg sunflower
    • Half-hardy- able to withstand temp 0'c eg cosmos
    • Tender - Damage below 5'C eg basil
  8. Define the term hardy,half-hardy,woody. tender and herbacous in relation to perennials
    • Hardy- survive frost stay in the ground all year round eg lupin
    • Half-hardy-Will not survive frost must be brought inside in winter eg pelargonium
    • Woody-has hard rather than fleshy stems eg bamboo
    • Herbacous-die back to root stock in winter and regrow in spring eg hosta
    • Tender- not hardy in cold climates grown undercover eg passion flower
  9. what is lignification
    to turn into wood through the deposit of ligin in the cell walls
  10. State the meaning of evergreen, semi-evergreen and deciduous
    • Evergreen- retains its leaves all year round eg bay tree
    • Semi-evergreen- retains its leaves unless its really cold eg abelia x gradiflora
    • Deciduous- lose its leaves every year eg acer sp
  11. What is the function of the cell
    • Cell Wall - Supports and contains the cell
    • Cell Membrane- is semi periamble and controls the movement of substances
    • Cytoplasm-jelly like substance the fills the cell membrane
    • Nucleus-Contains centre of the cells contains the chromosomes and iniates cell division (mitosis)
    • Vacule-provides structure stability
    • Chlorplasts- Contains chlorphil to carry out photosynthersis
    • Mitochondria-carry out respiration
  12. State where active cell division is located within the plant (apical and meristems)
    • Apical at tips (apical bud) and axils of roots and stem causing them to grow longer
    • Lateral in vascular cambian in woody plants causing the plant to get thicker
  13. Define plant tissue
    a group of cells which work together to perform a specific task
  14. Describe a dicotyledon flower structure
    • Sepals- a floral leaf or individual segment of the calyx of a flower generally green which usually forms the outer layer of the bud
    • Petals-non reproduction (sterille) part of the flower usually brightly colored
    • Calyx- collective term for the sepals
    • Corolla-collective term for the petals
    • Tepals-collective term for petals and sepals
    • Nectar ies-organs located at the base of the flower containing nectar
    • Anther-usually bilobed contains the pollen
    • Filiment- the stalk with the anther
    • Stigma-respective part of the female reproduction in which pollen germinates
    • Style-the elongated part of the carpel bearing the stigma
    • Ovary- the hollow basal region of the carpel containing the ovaries
  15. Define roots primary,secondary,taproot, lateral, adventitious, fibrous
    • Primary-root that emerges for the seed (radicle)
    • Secondary-root that grows from the radicle
    • Taproot-a single large root that will have many laterals growing out of it
    • Lateral-roots growing from the taproot
    • Fibrous-roots growing out of the base of the stem in grasses and onions
    • Adventitious-grows in unusual places eg on the stem or leaf
  16. Functions of root tip, root cap and root hair
    • Root tip-contains the meristem and root cap
    • Meristem-a region of rapid mitosis, which produces the new cells for root growth.
    • root cap - a sheath of cells that protects the meristem from abrasion and damage as the root tip grows through the soil.
    • Root hair-They have a large surface area that helps to absorb water and minerals from the soil.
  17. What are root adaptations
    • Taproot- stores carbohydrates acummulated in the summer eg biennials to over winter and the use the energy to flower the following year
    • Root Tuber-Swollen roots used for food storage eg potato
    • Climbing(aerial root)-Adventitious attachment roots growing from aerial stem
  18. What is the Structure of the stem
    • Nodes-Point of attachment of the leaf
    • Internodes-Space between nodes
    • Apical Bud-Terminal bud of main stem
    • Lateral/Axilary-Bud in junction of petiole and stem
  19. What are stem adaptions
    • Hair- hair like projections from the epidermis which protect from sun and waterloss eg lavender
    • Stinging Hair-Break off when touch injecting a chemical reaction
    • Thorns-Modified short branches into thorns to protect from browsing animals

    • Corns-Short swollen underground stem used for food storage enabling overwinter or surving hot and dry spells
    • Stem Tuber-An enlarged tip of a rhimzome containing stored food
    • Rhizomes-An underground horizontal stem which may be used as food storage
    • Climbing- stems may be adapted to twine around support or stem produced tendrils which curl and support plant
  20. The Structure of a leaf
    • Petiole-The Leaf Stalk
    • Lamina-The flat blade of the leaf
    • Midrib-The Main central vein of the leaf
  21. Leaf Shapes and Arrangement
  22. What are leaf adaptations
    • Bulb-Modified stem acting as a storage organ consisting of fleshy scale leaves on much reduced stem(basal)
    • Protection- Leaves may be modified into spines to reduce transpirations and protect from animals

    Climbing-Modified leaf stalks petioles may form attachments to support

    Attraction of Pollinators- Leaves may be modified as bracts and play the role of petals in attracting pollinators
  23. What is a fruit and what is its role
    A fruit is formed from a fertilized plant ovary its role is to protect seed and aid dispersal
  24. Describes the different types of fruits
    Dry(dehiscent and Indehiscent),Fleshy(True and False)
    • Dehiscent-Burst open to realese seed eg poppy,wall flower
    • Remain in tact (seed and fruit) eg clematis, sycamore

    • Fleshy
  25. What are the differnt types of seed dispersal
    • Wind-Sycamore,Dandelion
    • Water-Coconut,Alder
    • Animal(internal)-Hazel,Oak
    • Animal(external)-Cleavers
  26. What is the internal seed structure
    • Testa(seed coat)-This is the seed coat that protects the seed and it can be tough it be nessesary for the testa to be damaged in some way before the seed will germinate. This can be done by soil oraganisms or soil parasites or soaking the seed.
    • Cotyledon-This is a small leaf known as the seed leaf that provides a store of food for the germinating seed, this can one seed leaf (monocotyledon) or two (dicotyledon)
    • Plumule-This is the part of the seed that form the first shoot
    • Hypoctyl-This connects the plumule to the radicle
    • Radicle-This is part of the seed which forms the first root
    • Micropyle-This is a small hole in the testa which the pollen tube entered the ovule at the time of fertilzation it can be the point at which water enters the seed to start germination
  27. What is pollination
    (Cross,Self,Wind, Animal)
    • Tramsfences of pollen from anther to the stigma by wind, animals

    • Self- Pollinates with its self
    • Cross-Pollinates with another plant
    • Wind-Insignificant with no scent or nectar,anthers and stigma exposed very large quantities of pollen produced, pollen is small and light
    • Animal-Large showy flowers often with scent and nectar, anther and stigma possition for insects to touch, pollen larger may be sticky in lower quantities.
  28. What is fertilization
    • Fertilization
    • After pollination fertilization takes place. This is when the pollen and the ovule join together to make a seed.
    • The seed also contains a food store, usually starch.
    • The part of the flower surrounding the seed is known as the fruit.
    • After fertilization the petals and stamens wither and die. The ovary (which
    • forms the fruit) swells up, sometimes considerably. (ie as in the apple)
  29. what are gametes,zygotes
    • Gametes -
    • Male- sex cell in the pollen grain
    • Female-sex cell in the ovule

    Zygote-when a female and male gamete form together after fertilzation
  30. What is plant breeding compatilbility (pollination)
    • Some species are compatible, different species are incompatible
    • Cross pollination gives the advantage of ensuring greater genetic diversity

    • Plants may be self incompatable eg apple
    • Chemical barrier to own pollen
    • Pollen produced before stigma is ready to recieve it.

    • Some fruit are produced without pollination
  31. State the meaning of monoecious, dioecious, hermaphrodite
    • Monoecious- Seperate male and female flowers on same plant eg corn
    • Dioecious- Male and female flowers on seperate plant eg holly
    • Hermaphrodite-Male and female part on the flower eg most flowers
  32. What is photosynthesis

    • is the process in which plants use light and water to make sugar. using the light from the sun to make their own food, it takes place in the chloroplast in palisade cell. Carbon dioxie (CO2) is obtained form the atmospheare through the stomarta and water is obtained from the soil through the xylem