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Transcription of an unfamiliar sound system
e.g. key [k̟i], cot [kɑt]
Advanced consonant place:
- Mark a velar next to a high front vowel;
- Or any velar that sounds atypically far front
Retracted consonant place
e.g. pad [pæd], pal [pæ̙l]
Retracted vowel place:
vowels tend to be backed before /l/
e.g. huff [hʌf], shush [ʃʌ̘ʃ]
Advanced vowel place:
vowels may be fronted near an alveolar or postalveolar consonant, especially between two such consonants
e.g. Leon, [li̞ɑn]
Lowered vowel place:
A high vowel before a low vowel may undergo lowering in connected speech
Before a labial glide, t/d, s/z, and k/g become rounded: quick [kʷwɪk]
Rounding also occurs before a [+round] vowel: tune [tʷun]
Airstream does not flow down groove in center of tongue but instead flows over sides of tongue.
- [ɬ ] (voiceless)
- [ɮ] (voiced)
e.g. ninth [naɪn̪θ]
Sounds with an alveolar place of articulation
/t/, /d/, liquid
/l/) typically take on a dental place of articulation before the interdental fricatives
Assimilation is usually regressive, but dental place can also spread from a preceding interdental (across a word boundary) e.g.
with Terry [wɪθt̪ɛrɪ]
- The labiodental sounds /f/ and /v/ can change the
- place of articulation of a preceding nasal (/m, n/): [kʌm̪ fɚt]
- Dentalized /s/ and /z/ (tongue tip just
- behind upper incisors) is informally called a frontal lisp.
describes an /l/ that is produced with a more posterior (velar) region of constriction.
- A whistled fricative “occurs when the apex of the tongue directly contacts the back of the upper
- central incisors.”