Card Set Information
fluid electrolyte acid base
All about Fluids, Electrolytes, Acids and Bases
Intracellular fld is found where?
in cells of body
Is adipose tissue well hydrated?
what will happen if you consume large amounts of antacids?
is sodium the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?
componants of extracellular fluid?
blood plasma and lymph
nephritis shows symptoms in body as what imbalance?
what assists in buffering changes in pH?
does sodium assist in buffering a pH change?
where is thirst center located?
what is the main cation in intracellular fluid?
with a decrease in pCO2 and in metabolic acidosis what does it tell you?
chronic with respiratory compensation
to survive humans must maintain normal volume and composition of what things?
can you overhydrate?
what is the effect of decreased pH on amt of intracellular potassium ions?
decrease in amt of potassium ions
if water is lost but elecrolytes are retained what happens?
osmosis moves water from ICF to ECF
what hormone stimulates thirst mechanism?
water imbalance where output is more then intake causing imbalance in body fluids
what happens when large amt of pure water consumed?
osmolarities of 2 compartments are slightly lower
do elecrolytes have a greater or lessor osmotic power then non elecrolytes? and what does that mean?
Electrolytes have a greater osmotic power and have a greater ability to cause fld shifts
if you consume too much salt what happens in blood volume?
temporary increase in blood volume
how much body weight of a male is water?
what is lost from body by sweat,feces and urine?
what compensates for changes in pH when body fluids change drastically?
rate and depth of breathing
carbonic acid bicarbonate buffering system
hormone playing a role that determines rate of sodium absorption and potassium loss?
what maintains proper pH of body fluids?
operation of buffers in blood
control of respiratory ventilation
active secretion of H+ into filtrate by kidney tubule cells
blood pH 7.6 indicates what ?
what stimulates water conservation by kidney?
hormone released by cardiac muscle in response to abnormal stretching of heart walls?
what are weak acids buffers?
they act as chemical buffers for body as they only partially dissociate
what would occur from an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure?
too much vomitting and diarrhea would cause electrolyte levels to do what?
be less or decrease
major anion in ECF?
major cation in intracellular fld?
what does ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide) do?
block ADH release
block aldosterone release
what causes the most problems with electrolyte imbalance?
imbalance of sodium ion gains and losses in body
diabetic stops insulin d/t sore throat and swallowing pain. what acid base disorder could develop?
metabolic acidosis, increased anion gap
morbid obese, sticks to 600 calorie diet and 2000 cc water daily for 10 days. what acid base disorder could happen?
metabolic acidosis; increase anion gap
COPD, home O2 dependant, daily chronic sputum production, tx with several metered dose inhalors. what acid base disorder present?
chronic respiratory acidosis
what will happen to kidneys with a higher plasma concentration of aldosterone?
kidney will conserve sodium ions more effectively
what happens when level of sodium in extracellular fluid decreases?
increase of aldosterone
too much potassium
several days of vomitting, pregnant woman has alkalosis. what will urine have elevated?
why will hypoventilation produce acidosis?
CO2 accumulates and reacts with H2O
how does Angiotensis II produce elevation in ECF volume?
cause ADH release
trigger production and secretion of aldosterone
when sodium in extra cellular fld increases what is stimulated?
osmoreceptors are stimulated
trauma patient with crushing leg might have what imbalance?
major cation regulation for extracellular osmolarity?
when is ADH greatest?
when amout of ADH is released when blood
osmolarity is HIGH
what structure will eliminate excess potassium from?
acid base disorder associated with elevated respiration
abnormally large amt of ketones in blood gives a rise to what?
amt of potassium secreted by kidney is regulated by what hormone ?
factors increasing secretion of antidiuretic hormone ?
increase concentration of sodium in ECF
decrease in renal blood flow
increase osmolarity of ECF
in a long standing metabolic acidosis, RR may increase. what is this an example of?
when dissolved in H2O what will produce ions?
what hormone promotes reabsorption of calcium by kidney?
when dissolved in water, acids produce what ions?
hydrogen ions and negative ions
are infants more or less prone to dehydration?
more prone to dehydration
PRIMARY role of carbonic acid- bicarbonate buffer system?
prevent pH changes caused by organic and fixed acid
do infants produce more or less metabolic waste?
when is pH lower? hypoventilation or hyperventilation?
lower after hypoventilation
why are eldery more prone to acid base problems?
slower exhaled CO2
acidosis can cause what problems?
coma and death
why are infants more prone to dehydration?
fluid output 7x higher
what do kidneys secrete when pH of extracellular flud declines?
kidney secrete more potassium
hypoventilation causes what problem?
what is effect of a decrease in pH on amt of potassium in urine?
increase in amout of potassium in urine
in response to respiratory alkalosis what happens with carbon dioxide?
body retains more carbon dioxide
response to a rapid increase of organic acid in body what is observed?
prolonged vomiiting results in what ?
emphysema shows signs of what imbalance?
chronic diabetes shows signs of what imbalance?
high altitude can cause lose of consciousness as result of what imbalance?
negative exponent of H+ ion concentration
Elevated blood potassium will release what hormone?
What condition can cause spontaneous neural firing?
Which hormone causes peripheral vasodilation?
BNP (Brain Natriuretic peptide)
How will your respiratory system compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
breathe slower so RR decreases
What is the technical term for elevated sodium?
The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by
Why are levels of bicarbonate ion higher in arterial blood than venous blood
Because more bicarbonate ions are used up in venous blood to buffer hydrogen ions
principle anion in extracellular fluid is
hypernatremia can be defined as
excessive retention of plasma sodium
Holding your breath for an extended period of time results in
In compensating for respiratory alkolosis, the body excretes more
Drinking plain water after excessive sweating leads to
pH 7; the soln contains equal numbers of H+ and hydroxide ions
acid- a compound dissociates in soln and releases a H+ and an anion
acidic- soln with pH below 7; H+ ions predominate
basic- soln with pH above 7; hydroxide ions predominate
base- compound where dissociation releases hydroxide or removes a hydrogen from soln
soln with pH above 7; hydroxide ions predominate
salt- inorganic compound of cation other then H+ and anion other then hydroxide
buffer- compound that stabilizes pH of soln by removing or releasing H+
what is a strong acid vs. weak acid?
strong - completely dissociates in soln
weak- acid where a good njmber of molecules remain intact and dissociation is not complete.
strong base vs weak base?
weak base completely dissociates
strong base the molecules remain intact and dissociation is not complete
extracellular-fluid outside body cells; includes interstitial and blood plasma
interstitial fluid- fluid in tissues filling spaces between cells
vascular fluid- inside blood and lymph vessels
anion vs cation
anion (-) charge
cation (+) charge
hypertonic- soln with higher osmolarity
hypotonic- soln with lower osmolarity
what are osmoreceptors?
sensitive to changes in osmolarity of plasma
what is edema?
movement of abnormal amt of water from plasma into interstitial fld
acidemia vs alkalemia
acidemia pH below 7.35
alkalemia pH above 7.45
change in anatomical system in response to change in pH
(renal) change in renal rates of H+ and HC03- secretion or reabsorption
(respiratory) change in resp rate to adjust CO2 levels
interacting compounds prevent increase or decrese in pH of body fld
water movement between intracell adn extracell fld
when is ADH secreted?
what situations stimulate secretion of aldosterone?
low Blood sodium level
ADH function on homeostasis of water volumee in body?
1) stimulates water conservation at kidney, reducing water loss in urine
2) stimulate thirst center to increase fld intake.
how does intracell buffer system help maintain pH of extracell plasm?
exchanges ions in resposnse to pH; chloride for bicarbonate and potassium for hydrogen ions.
how does pulmonary and renal mechanisms support chemical buffer system?
secretion or reabsorption of H+
control excretion of acid/bases
generate additional buffers if needed
causes of metabolic acidosis
imparied ability to excrete H+ at kidney
production of large number of fixed /organic acid
severe bicarbonate loss
term for low/high calcium levels
normal values for calcium
causes of hypocalcemia
loss through hypoparathyroidism
diet intake loss
symptoms of hypocalcemia
cuase of hypercalcemia
too much vit D intake
symptom of hypercalcemia
too much chloride/too little?
hyperchloremia is too much
hypochloremia is too little
normal chloride range
causes for hyper/hypochloremia?
hyperchloremia-dehydratioin, renal fail, hyperaldosgteronism or acidosis
hypochloremia- vomit, aldosterone deficiency excess water intake, CHF
symptoms of hyper/hypochloremia
hyper-weak, metabolic acidisisis, rapid deep breath
hypo- muscle spasm, metabolic alkalosis, hypotension
too much magnesium/too little?
- too much magnesium
- too little magnesium
normal magnesium range
too much phosphate/too little?
hyperphosphatemia- too much phosphate
hypophosphatemia- too little phosphate
normal phosphate range
too much potassium/too little?
hypokalemia- too little potassium
hyperkalemia- too much potassium
normal potassium range
too much sodium/too little sodium
hypernatremia- too much sodium
hyponatremia- too little sodium
normal sodium range
normal bicarbonate range
normal glucose rate
anion gap range
urnie volume range
600-1200 /24 hours
GFR normal rate
urine specific gravity range
cardiac output normal range
HR normal range
respiratory normal ranges
FVC- more then 80% (if not then restrictive pulm disease such as pregnancy, penumonia, or paralysis)
FEV1-more then 80% (if not then obstructive pulm disease such as asthma)
FMEF- more then 65% or obstructive pulm disease
major components of ECF
how much of body makes up intracell fld?
2/3 of total body water
major cation in ECF?
major cation in ICF?
sodium in ECF
potassium in ICF
major anion in ECF?
major anion in ICF?
ECF is chloride
ICF is hydrogen phosphate (HPO4^2-)
what does "water follows salt mean?"
water wants to move passively in response to gradient. water moves from a higher solute concentration to try to dilute it.
antidiuretic hormone function
stimulate water conservation in collecting duct and thirst center
function of aldosterone
control sodium and potassium secretion of kidney tubule. if low sodium or increase in potassium then aldosterone is released
function of renin
trigger decrease renal blood flow
stimulate release of angiotensin 2
function of angiotensin 2
stimulate release of aldosterone
function of ANP?
reduce thirst adn block release of ADH and aldosterone
function of BNP
reduce thirst and block release of ADH adn aldosterone
if ECF hypertonic what happens to water?
water moves from Intra to extracell fluid
If ECF is hypotonic what happens to water?
water moves from Extracell fluid to inside
when does secretion of potassium ion at kidney increase?
rise in ECF concentration
when does potassium retention happen at kidney?
pH falls and sodium potassium pump switches to using H+ ion instead of K+
major problem with hypokalemia? and hyperkalemia?
hypo-muscle weak and paralysis
hyper- cardiac arrhythmia
what is the most important factor affecting pH of ECF?
If less CO2 in body what happens to pH?
if more CO2 in body what happens to pH?
less CO2 = higher pH
more CO2= less pH
what equation do we need to know about acids and carbonic acid
co2 + H20 = H2CO3 <=> H+ + HC03-
location of phosphate buffer?
only inside cell
what buffer systems happen inside and outside cells?
in hemoglobin buffer system what is relationship of CL- and HCO3-?
CL- swapped for HCO3-
lungs help regulate pH through carbonic acid-bicarb buffer system
RR changes PCo2
kidney helps regulate pH by adjusting secretion and reabsorb H+ and bicarbonate
what happens with RR if acidic? basic?
if acidic RR increases
basic RR decreases
respiratory acid base disorders
resp system causing problem results in rise or fall of CO2 in ECF
metabolic acid base disorders
generation of organic or fixed acid (exercise, diabetes, vomit)
anything affecting concentration of bicarbonate
compensation happening in respiratory acidosis?
renal compensation which increases plasma bicarbonate
(hypoventilation, COPD, asthma, paralysis, pneumonia pneumothorax)
compensation happening in metabolic acidosis?
respiratory compensation- decreases CO2 and decrease in bicarbonate
renal compensation increaseas bicarbonate
what is acidosis /alkalosis?
acidosis- decreased neuro function
alkalosis- spontaneous neural firing
compensation during respiratory alkalosis?
renal compensation decreases plasma bicarbonate
compensation during metabolic alkalosis?
respiratory compensation increases CO2
renal compensation decreases bicarbonate
how to test for imbalances in acid base/electrolyte?
1) test pH if normal then electrolyte problem if not normal then look at acid base imbalances
2) if acid base problem based on low or high pH then check CO2 levels for respiratory problem
if pH acidic and CO2 high = respiratory acidosis (resp system problem)
if pH acidic and CO2 low = metabolic acidosis (other body problem)
3) look at pCO2
4) look at bicarbonate- this measures renal compensation
5) anion gap
increased anion gap means what?
decreased means ?
increase in gap- increase in acids
normal to decrease in gap- loss of bases or bicarbonate most common r/t to diarrhea