Neurologic structures tbf with NS216.txt

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Neurologic structures tbf with NS216.txt
2010-11-16 21:48:35

structure and norms to be familiar with
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  1. Frontal lobe contains/responsible for?
    • primary motor cortex = voluntary motor activity
    • intellectual function
    • awareness of self
    • personality
  2. Parietal lobe contains/responsible for?
    • contains primary somesthetic (sensory) cortex
    • receive sensory input such as position, touch, and shape
  3. Temporal lobe contains/responsible?
    • contains primary auditory cortex
    • comprehension of spoken and written language
  4. Occipital lobe contains/responsible for?
    • contains the primary visual cortex
    • receiving and interpreting visual information
  5. Thalamus is a _____
    relay and integration station from the spinal cord to the brain
  6. Hypothalamus does what?
    • maintains homeostasis (temperature, thirst, hunger)
    • formation of autonomic nervous system responses
    • regulates pituitary gland
    • secretes ADH to be stored in the p-gland
  7. Epithalamus contains/responsible for?
    • contains the pineal gland
    • sleepiness
  8. Subthalamus is part of the ___
    basal ganglia
  9. Diencephalon contains?
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
    • subthalamus
  10. Basal ganglia is responsible for ____
    smooth, coordinated voluntary muscle movement
  11. Substantia nigra is part of what and does what?
    • part of the basal ganglia
    • secretes dopamine and acetylcholine
  12. Acetylcholine (action)
    neurotransmitter that excites muscles
  13. Dopamine (action)
    neurotransmitter that smooths out muscle movement
  14. Brain stem is made of what parts?
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
  15. Midbrain (job)
    relay stimuli concerning muscle movement from the muscle to other brain structures
  16. What nerves originate in the midbrain?
    • oculomotor nerve (CN III)
    • trochlear nerve (CN IV)
  17. Pons (job)
    relay impulses from the cerebellum to the brain stem and between the two hemispheres
  18. What nerves originate in the pons?
    • trigeminal (CN V)
    • abducens (CN VI)
    • facial (CN VII)
    • acoustic or auditory (CN VIII)
  19. Medulla oblongata (job)
    controlling breathing, sneezing, swallowing, coughing, vomiting, vasoconstriction
  20. Where do signals cross from one side of the brain to the other?
    Medulla oblongata
  21. What nerves originate in the medulla oblongata?
    • glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
    • vagus (CN X)
    • spinal accessory (CN XI)
    • hypoglossal (CN XII)
  22. Tentorium cerebella (location and function)
    • separates cerebellum from cerebral cortex
    • coordinating movements
    • equilibrium
    • muscle tone
    • proprioception (sense of space)
  23. Supratentorial injuries result in
    changes in arousal due to changes in the cerebral cortex
  24. Subtentorial or intratentorial injuries result in
    • cerebellar or brainstem injury
    • manifestations due to injury to RAS
  25. RAS = ____ and is responsible for ___
    • Reticular Activating System
    • arousal (awakeness)
  26. Structural impact of aging
    • decreased brain weight
    • ventricles enlarge to make up for brain shrinkage
    • fibrosis and thickening of meninges
    • arterial atherosclerosis
    • increased permeability of blood brain barrier
    • decreased myelin
  27. Functional impact of aging
    • decreased deep tendon reflexes
    • decline in taste and smell
    • decreased vibratory sense
    • decreased visual accommodation
    • decreased color vision
    • decreased neuromuscular control affects gait and posture
    • sleep disturbances
    • memory impairments
  28. Components of LOC assessment
    • arousal - mediated by RAS
    • content of thought - mediated by cerebral cortex and brainstem
  29. Obtunded =
    decreased response to pain
  30. Cheyne-Stokes (Dis & Cause)
    • periods of apnea between normal berating
    • caused by damage to cerebral cortex
  31. Decorticate Posturing (Dis & Indicates)
    • flexion and adduction of arms, wrists, and fingers
    • indicates cortical damage above the midbrain
  32. Decerebrate Posturing (Dis & Indicates)
    • fixed extension of arms and legs
    • indicates severe injury at and below the midbrain