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Frontal lobe contains/responsible for?
- primary motor cortex = voluntary motor activity
- intellectual function
- awareness of self
Parietal lobe contains/responsible for?
- contains primary somesthetic (sensory) cortex
- receive sensory input such as position, touch, and shape
Temporal lobe contains/responsible?
- contains primary auditory cortex
- comprehension of spoken and written language
Occipital lobe contains/responsible for?
- contains the primary visual cortex
- receiving and interpreting visual information
Thalamus is a _____
relay and integration station from the spinal cord to the brain
Hypothalamus does what?
- maintains homeostasis (temperature, thirst, hunger)
- formation of autonomic nervous system responses
- regulates pituitary gland
- secretes ADH to be stored in the p-gland
Epithalamus contains/responsible for?
- contains the pineal gland
Subthalamus is part of the ___
Basal ganglia is responsible for ____
smooth, coordinated voluntary muscle movement
Substantia nigra is part of what and does what?
- part of the basal ganglia
- secretes dopamine and acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that excites muscles
neurotransmitter that smooths out muscle movement
Brain stem is made of what parts?
- medulla oblongata
relay stimuli concerning muscle movement from the muscle to other brain structures
What nerves originate in the midbrain?
- oculomotor nerve (CN III)
- trochlear nerve (CN IV)
relay impulses from the cerebellum to the brain stem and between the two hemispheres
What nerves originate in the pons?
- trigeminal (CN V)
- abducens (CN VI)
- facial (CN VII)
- acoustic or auditory (CN VIII)
Medulla oblongata (job)
controlling breathing, sneezing, swallowing, coughing, vomiting, vasoconstriction
Where do signals cross from one side of the brain to the other?
What nerves originate in the medulla oblongata?
- glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
- vagus (CN X)
- spinal accessory (CN XI)
- hypoglossal (CN XII)
Tentorium cerebella (location and function)
- separates cerebellum from cerebral cortex
- coordinating movements
- muscle tone
- proprioception (sense of space)
Supratentorial injuries result in
changes in arousal due to changes in the cerebral cortex
Subtentorial or intratentorial injuries result in
- cerebellar or brainstem injury
- manifestations due to injury to RAS
RAS = ____ and is responsible for ___
- Reticular Activating System
- arousal (awakeness)
Structural impact of aging
- decreased brain weight
- ventricles enlarge to make up for brain shrinkage
- fibrosis and thickening of meninges
- arterial atherosclerosis
- increased permeability of blood brain barrier
- decreased myelin
Functional impact of aging
- decreased deep tendon reflexes
- decline in taste and smell
- decreased vibratory sense
- decreased visual accommodation
- decreased color vision
- decreased neuromuscular control affects gait and posture
- sleep disturbances
- memory impairments
Components of LOC assessment
- arousal - mediated by RAS
- content of thought - mediated by cerebral cortex and brainstem
decreased response to pain
Cheyne-Stokes (Dis & Cause)
- periods of apnea between normal berating
- caused by damage to cerebral cortex
Decorticate Posturing (Dis & Indicates)
- flexion and adduction of arms, wrists, and fingers
- indicates cortical damage above the midbrain
Decerebrate Posturing (Dis & Indicates)
- fixed extension of arms and legs
- indicates severe injury at and below the midbrain