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Atoms were thought to be the _______ unit of earth
Atoms are made of _____, _____, _____.
- Protons, neutrons, and electrons
- Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus
- Electrons orbit the nucleus
Protons and neutrons are made of _________. There are 6 different types. (Good names for your future children!)
Quarks. The 6 types (or flavors) are up, down, top, bottom, charm, & strange.
Atoms make _______, which make, _______, which make,_______.
Elements, minerals, rocks.
Protons have a _____ charge and weigh __ AMU , neutrons have a _____ charge and weigh __ AMU, and electrons have a ____ charge, weighing __ AMU.
Protons have a '+' charge and weigh 1.0 AMU , neutrons have a neutral charge and weigh 1.0 AMU, and electrons have a '-' charge, weighing 0.005 AMU.
The number of protons and electrons in an elements atom are equal to the ______ __, and the number of neutrons is equal to the _______ ___ _________ __ ___ ________ __. So an iridium atom has 77 protons, 77 electrons, and 115 neutrons. The higher the atomic mass and the more an atom contains, the more ______ it is.
The number of protons and electrons in an elements atom are equal to the atomic #, and the number of neutrons is equal to the atomic mass subtracted by the atomic number. So an iridium atom has 77 protons, 77 electrons, and 115 neutrons. The higher the atomic mass and the more an atom contains, the more unstable it is.
Characteristics of minerals are determined by the minerals internal arrangement of _____.
Minerals are ______, meaning they come from the Earth, _____, meaning that it wasn't one alive, and _________, meaning it it is the same throughout. The 5 ways to identify a mineral are from _____, ________, ______, ________, & _____.
Minerals are natural, meaning they come from the Earth, inorganic, meaning that it wasn't once alive, and homogenous, meaning it it is the same throughout. The 5 ways to identify a mineral are from luster, hardness, streak, cleavage, & color.
What is luster?
Luster is whether or not the mineral has a metallic shine. If it is, it has a metallic luster, if it doesn't it is non-metallic. If it is clear, it is glassy.
What is the hardness of a mineral?
- The ability of a mineral to not scratch. Based on Moh's scale of hardness, 1-10. 1 is the softest mineral (talc), and 10 is the hardest (diamond).
- A finger nail is worth a 2.5
- A penny is worth a 3.5
- A piece of glass is worth a 5.5
What is the streak of a mineral?
The color of the minerals powder. You would test it by scratching it on a porcelain streak plate.
What is the cleavage of a mineral?
It is the breakage of the mineral. If the mineral has cleavage, it has flat sides. If the mineral has fracture, it is a lump.
What is the color of a mineral?
Color varies by mineral. Some mineral has many colors and make it easy to identify.
What is the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust?
Oxygen and silicon making up 75% of hte Earth's crust
What is the mineral family that has oxygen and silicon?
Name 2 other mineral families.
Halides, sulfides, carbonates, and oxides.
Some minerals can be ______, _______, ________, ________.
Magnetic, radioactive, fluorescent, and fizz with acid.
How are rocks classified?
Where they are formed.
Where are igneous rocks formed?
Igneous rocks come from molten lava or magma and cool down. The long they are in a volcano, the more time it takes to cool down.
Where are sedimentary rocks formed?
They form underwater in layers from accumulation of sediment, or organic material, the evaporation of seawater. They form when sediments are squeezed and compacted under tremendous pressure and all of the water is pushed out of the rock.
Where are metamorphic rocks formed?
They are formed when rocks are put under heat and pressure to change the old rock. They are usually in mountains or near volcanoes
What are some words that you would see that only apply to igneous rocks?
- Crystals- Show signs of how long the rock took to cool.
- Vesicular- See other card
- Texture- The size of the grain/crystal
- Glassy- See other Card
- Intrusive/Extrusive- See other card
What are some words that you would see that only apply to sedimentary rocks?
- Clastic/fragmental- Formed from inorganic gragments and minerals
- Crystalline- Formed by the evaporation of seawater (the result is called precipitate)
- Bioclastic- Formed by the cementing of organic materials (like shells or plant materials)
- Fossils- They are the only rock that has fossils
- Layers- Sediments form a rock in layers, but not the best one
What are some words that you would see that only apply to metamorphic rocks?
- Foliation- The layering of sedimentery layers
- Banding- layering of minerals
- Recrystallization- The rocks reforming crystals
- Heat and Pressure- How metamorphic rocks are made
What does it mean if a rock is intrusive?
It formed below ground and took a long time to cool down.
What does it mean if a rock is extrusive?
The rock formed above ground very quickly.
What does it mean if a rock is vesicular?
It means the rock has gas pockets because the rock was bubbling with froth and cooled down quickly enough to leave behing gas pockets.
What does it mean if a rock is glassy?
The rock has no crystalls and is extrusive.
What does it mean if a rock is fine?
It has very small crystalls (less than 1/10 millimeter)
What does it mean if a rock is coarse or very coarse?
The rock has large crystalls (More than 1/10 millimeter for coarse, very coarse is more than a millimeter)
Most igneous rock is _____ sedimentary rock
______, an igneous rock, covers the continental crust and is ____ dense than ____, also an igneous rock, covers the oceanic crust. It makes sense because the ______ crust is lower than the ______ crust.
Granite, an igneous rock, covers the continental crust and is less dense than basalt, also an igneous rock, covers the oceanic crust. It makes sense because the continental crust is lower than the oceanic crust.
Why is granite found at the top of the Earth's crust?
Earthquakes bring it to the top, erosion wears the top to the granite
Why are they're so many sedimentary rocks on the surface?
The Earth was one a giant ocean about 400,000,000 years ago
What rocks can be metamorphic?
All of them! (Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic)
What does it mean if a rock is foliated?
It has layers
Be sure you can read the rock cycle and have your Refence Tables so that you can do the charts. Be sure you know how to classify the rockks into categories.