Dr. E exam 4

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Dr. E exam 4
2010-11-21 11:05:03
muscles joints bones hyoid

lectures 13-16
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  1. Bone
    • osseous tissue
    • compact=osteons
    • spongy=cancellous
  2. Function of Bone
    • support
    • protection
    • movement(rigid bar of lever)
    • blood formation=HEMATOPOIESIS
    • inorganic salt storage= 70% of matrix=mostly sm. crystals of a type of calcium phosphate called HYDROXYAPATITE
  3. Components of Bone
    • cells=osteo-
    • ORGANIC matrix=OSTEOID 35% collagen fibers and ground substance (PROTEOGLYCANS & GLYCOPROTEIN)
    • INORGANIC MATRIX=65% hydroxyapitate Ca2+ salts
  4. Periosteum
    • dense regular CT
    • covers outer surface of bone
    • vascular
    • supplied with nerves
    • aids in growth and repair
    • outer layer=fibrous
    • inner layer=cellular
    • tough
    • firmly attached
    • perioteal fibers are continuous with connected tendons and ligaments
  5. Osteoprogenitor
    • osteogenic
    • mesenchymal
    • can make new bone
  6. Osteoblasts
    • mesenchymal derived
    • secretes matrix of bone
    • makes soft part of bone matrix
  7. Osteocytes
    • mature osteoblasts
    • trapped in lacunae (space within woven and lamellar bone)
    • LAMELLAR=bone tissue organized into thin sheets/layers of mature bone
    • maintains bone
  8. Osteoclasts
    • osteolysis
    • monocyte derived
    • eats bone
  9. Articular Cartilage
    • outer surface of long bone
    • hyaline cartilage
  10. Spongy Bone
    • inner part of long bone
    • NO osteons
    • matrix=struts and plates=TRABECULAE(oriented along lines of mechanical stress applied by body weight)
    • located where bones AREN'T stressed
    • light but strong
    • supports and protects red marrow
  11. 1st Layer of Growth at the Epiphyseal Plates
    • proximal end of epiphysis(end of long bone that consists of spongy bone)
    • resting cells
    • connects to rest of bone
  12. 2nd Layer of Growth at the Epiphyseal Plates
    • many rows of young cells
    • MITOSIS=active growth
  13. 3rd Layer of Growth at the Epiphyseal Plates
    • old cells
    • cells enlarging and becoming calcified
    • left behind when new cells appear
  14. 4th Layer of Growth at the Epiphyseal Plates
    • thin
    • dead cells
    • calcified inner cellular substance
  15. Space Containing Red Marrow
    • site of blood cells formation
    • found in spongy bone of skull, ribs, sternum, clavicle, vertebrae and pelvis
    • in epiphysis of long bone
    • RBCs, Plts, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils and monocytes
    • T&B lymphocytes
  16. Endosteum
    • CT membrane
    • lines internal surface of all cavities INSIDE bone
    • single layer
    • osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteochondrial progenitor cells
  17. Compact Bone
    • "cortical"
    • solid
    • osteons are the structural unit
    • OUTER part of bone
  18. Medullary Cavity
    • space in diaphysis(shaft) of long bone
    • osteoclast remove bone during endochondrial ossification and specialized cells form red marrow
  19. Yellow Marrow
    in skull and limbs EXCEPT in proximal epiphysis
  20. Intramembranous Ossification
    • bone originates in sheet-like layers of fibrous/mesenchymal CT
    • in broad flat bones(skull and clavicle)
    • 1.starts w/CT sheets
    • 2.blood vessels invade CT
    • 3.membrane formed which helps osteochondral progenitor cells become osteoblasts
    • 4.osteocytes get trapped
    • 5.hardens
    • 6.honeycomb is formed by continued mineral deposits
    • 7.surface fills in
  21. Endochondrial Ossification
    • begins as hyaline cartilage
    • forms most of bones in skeleton(long bones)
    • 1.hyaline forms
    • 2.periosteim develops(calcified cartilage)
    • 3.compact bone develops
  22. Epiphyseal Plate Fractures
    bad because if they aren't fixed right bones may develop unevenly or stop growing altogether
  23. Bone Homeostasis(Remodeling)
    • 2 step process that continues through life
    • 1.Bone resorption=osteoclasts and parathyroid hormone breakdown bone and raise blood calcium
    • 2.Bone Deposition=osteoblasts and calcitonin build bone up and blood loses calcium
  24. Factors Affecting Bone Homeostasis
    • hydroxyapitate=specific tissue that forms bone
    • vitamin A=bone development
    • vitamin C=bone strength
    • vitamin D=calcium absorption
    • sex hormones=bone formantion and stimulation of ossification(closure) of epiphseal plates
    • insulin-like growth factors=stimulated by hGH
    • insufficient growth hormone=pituitary dwarfism
    • excessive growth hormone=gigantism, acromegaly
    • insufficient thyroid hormone=delayed bone growth
    • pysical stress=excersize stimulates bone growth
  25. Calcium Homeostasis Breaking Down Bone Raising Blood Calcium
    • vitamin D->PTH w/ calcitriol(cholesterol derived)->rate of intestinal apsorption increases
    • PTH->kidneys retain calcium ions
    • PTH->osteoclasts stimulated to increase release of stored calcium ions
  26. Calcium Homeostasis Building Up Bone Decreasing Blood Calcium
    • decreased PTH->rate of intestinal absorption decreases
    • calcitonin->kidneys lose calcium ions
    • calcitonin->osteoclasts inhibited->osteoblasts continue to lock calcium bone matrix
  27. Hematopoiesis
    • process of blood cell formation
    • takes place in red marrow
    • myeloid cells(rbcs, plts, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes)
    • t&b lymphocytic cells
  28. Hyoid Bone
    • supports larynx(at upper part of trachea where vocal cords are located
    • site of attachment for muscles of larynx, pharynx,(throat), and tongue
    • suspended from styloid process by ligaments and muscles
  29. Bones of the Orbit
    • frontal
    • zygomatic, sphenoid, ethimoid, lacrimal sulcus(tear duct)
    • palatine
    • maxilla
  30. Spaces in Orbit of Eye
    • superior and inferior orbital fissure
    • optic canal
    • nasolacrimal canal
    • infraorbital groove
    • supra and infra orbital foramen
  31. Paranasal Sinuses
    • air-filled mucous-membrane lined chambers connected to the nasal cavity
    • 1.FRONTAL(2)->above eyes near midline
    • 2.SPHENOIDAL(2)->sphenoid bone above posterior portion of nasal cavity
    • 3.ETHMOIDAL(2groups)->ethmoid bone on either side of upper portion of nasal cavity
    • 4.MAXILLARY(2)->lateral to nasal cavity extends from floor of orbits to roots of upper teeth
  32. Nasal Conchae Functions
    • creates swirls, turbulence and eddies that:
    • 1.direct particles against mucous to trap toxins
    • 2.slows air movement so its warmed and humidified
    • 3.directs air to superior nasal cavity to olfactory nerves(cribriform plate) sense of smell
  33. Fontanels
    • fibrous membranes in a fetal/infant skull that allows movement of skull bones and brain growth
    • anterior fontanel is largest and last to close(2y/o)
    • all other fontanels close around 2-3 months
  34. Primary Curves of Vertebral Column
    • thorasci and sacral areas
    • present at brith
    • "accommodation curves" since they accommodate the thoracic and pelvic organs
  35. Secondary Curves of the Vertebral Column
    • cervical and lumbar areas
    • don't develop until several months after birth as infants begin to hold their heads up and stand
    • "compensation curves" because they shift the weight of the trunk over the limbs
  36. Vertebral Abnormalities
    • KYPHOSIS->exagerated THORACIC curve(hunchback)
    • LORDOSIS->exagerated LUMBAR curve(protrudes into stomach
    • SCOLIOSIS->abnormal LATERAL curve(spine doesn't go straight down)
  37. Intervertebral Disks
    • anulus fibrosus surrounds nucleus pulposus
    • spinal cord is located between poserior longitudinal ligament and spinous process
  38. Herniated Disk
    nucleus pulposus pushed to one side and presses on spinal nerves
  39. Types of Ribs
    • 7 pairs of VERTEBROSTERNAL ribs->true ribs, has own attachment to vertebrae and sternum
    • 3 pairs of VERTEBROCHONDRAL ribs->false ribs, attaches to vertebrae and cartilage of 7th true rib
    • 2 pairs of VERTEBRAL ribs->floating ribs, attaches to vertebrae only
  40. Pectoral Girdle
    • no articulation with vertebral column
    • shallow socket for limbs to maximize movement at the expense of strength
  41. Aromioclavicular Joint
    between acromion and clavicle
  42. Glenohumeral Joint
    between humerus and glenoid cavity
  43. Sternoclavicular Joint
    Between sternum and clavicle
  44. Rotator Cuff (SITS)
    • tendon of supraspinatus muscle(posterior superior between acromion and coracoid processes)
    • tendon of infraspinatus muscle(posterior under acromion process)
    • teres minor muscle(posterior inferior)
    • subscapularis muscle(anterior inferior)
  45. Pelvis Girdle
    • sacroiliac joint DIRECTLY articulates with vertebral column
    • deep joint for maximum strength at the expense of movement
    • 2 COXAE->supports trunk of body and protects viscera
  46. Pelvis
    • pelvic brim->circular inside
    • pelvic inlet->across pelvic brim
    • pelvic outlet->between ischial spines, bottom circle
    • greater/false pelvis->NO ORGANS, ilium, above pelvic brim
    • lesser/true pelvis->HAS ORGANS, pubis, ischium, sacrum
  47. Big Toe
    hallus, hallucis
  48. Thumb
    pollex, pollicis
  49. Arches of Foot
    • enables foot to support weight
    • ideally distributes weight over hard and soft tissues
    • provides leverage for walking
  50. Medial Part of Longitudinal Arch
    • longways medially
    • instep
    • calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiforms and 1-3 metatarsals
  51. Lateral Part of Longitudinal Arch
    • longways laterally
    • calcaneus, cuboid, 4-5 metatarsals
  52. Transverse Arch
    • across top of foot
    • cuboid, cuneiforms, base of metatarsals
  53. Fibrous Joints
    • dense CT connects bones
    • between bones that are in close contact(no space just CT)
  54. Cartilaginous Joints
    hyaline or fibrocartilage connects bone
  55. Synovial Joints
    • most complex
    • allows FREE movements
    • have a cavity
    • diarthrotic
    • articular cartilage
    • synovial membrane
    • synovial fluid
    • reinforcing->ligaments, bursae and tendons
  56. Synarthrotic
  57. Amphiarthrotic
    slightly movable
  58. Diarthrotic
    freely movable
  59. Syndesmosis
    • amphiarthrotic
    • desmos=band/ligament
    • broad sheets/bundles
    • long fibers that connect bones
    • EX. distal ends of tibia and fibula
  60. Suture
    • synarthrotic
    • sew
    • thin layers of CT that connects flat bones
    • EX. sutures of cranial bones
  61. Gomphosis
    • synarthrotic
    • bolts
    • peg in socket
    • EX. tooth in jaw
  62. Synchondrosis
    • synarthrotic
    • bands of hyaline cartilage
    • EX. between manubrium and 1st rib(sternocostal)
  63. Symphysis
    • pad of fibrocartilage between bone
    • EX. vertebral disks, pubic symphasis
  64. Synovial Fluid
    • lubricates
    • distributes nutrients
    • absorbs shock
  65. Gliding SJ
    • nonaxial
    • between carples/tarsels
    • flat surfaces that move past each other
  66. Hinge SJ
    • monaxial
    • elbow/knee
    • angular open/close movement
  67. Pivot SJ
    • monaxial
    • between proximal ends of ulna and radius
    • the DENS on the atlas and axis
    • rotation around long axis
  68. Saddle SJ
    • biaxial
    • between carples and metacarples of thumb
    • angular movements(north & south/east & west)
  69. Ball & Socket SJ
    • multiaxial
    • hip/shoulder
    • movement around 3 axis and inbetween
  70. Condyloid
    • biaxial
    • between metacarples and phalanges
    • angular motion
  71. Flexion
    • decrease angle between bones
    • direction of greatest mobility
    • EX. hand up to shoulder
  72. Extension
    • putting back into anatomical position
    • usually happens after flexion
  73. Hyperextension
    • extension BEYOND anatomical position
    • joints are limited by tendons, ligaments and bone
  74. Lateral Flexion
    • movement side to side on frontal plane
    • hand into stomach
  75. ABduction
    move away from midline
  76. ADduction
    move toward midline
  77. Circumduction
    movement of distal end of limbs in a circle
  78. Supination
    hand in anatomical position palm upward
  79. Pronation
    hand turned posteriorly
  80. Protraction
    move head forward
  81. Retraction
    move head back after protraction
  82. Eversion
    • foot SM
    • flex out toward 5th toe(lateral)
  83. Opposition
    • thumb SM
    • thumb touchs 5th finger
  84. Inversion
    • foot SM
    • flex in toward 1st toe(medial)
  85. Dorsiflexion
    • foot SM
    • toes up toward shin
  86. Plantar Flexion
    • foot SM
    • toes curled toward sole of foot
  87. Elbow Joint
    • stable
    • flexsion/extension
    • hinge and gliding joints
  88. Coxial Joint
    • femur and coxa
    • ball and socket
    • heavy joint capsule
  89. Tibiofemoral
    • knee
    • most complex joint of the body
    • modified hinge joint
    • flexion/extension/little rotation
    • menisci(between femur and tibia, fibrocartilage)
  90. Skeletal Muscles
    • attaches to bone
    • voluntary
    • striated
    • multinucleated
    • movement
    • heat(shivering)
    • provide stability
    • provide structural tone(purposeful)
  91. Smooth Muscle
    • walls of viscera, blood vessels and skin
    • involuntary
    • non-striated
    • exibts rhythmicity and peristalsis(progressive wave of contraction and relaxation/forces contents through system)
    • guards entrances and exists
    • regulates internal organ movement and volume
  92. Cardiac Muscle
    • walls of heart
    • involuntary
    • striated
    • branched
    • gap junctions and desmosomes
    • pumps blood
  93. Common Characteristics of ALL Muscle
    • contractile->shortens forcefully but can't forcefully lengthen
    • extensible->can stretch
    • elastic->returns to resting length
    • excitable->responds to electric impulses
    • conductive->transmits electrical impulses
  94. Organization of a Skeletal Muscle
    • bone
    • tendon
    • fascia
    • epimysium(around muscle)
    • muscle
    • perimysium(around fascicle)
    • fascicle
    • endomysium
    • fiber(cells)
    • myofibrils
    • thick and thin filiments
  95. Sarcolemma
    • muscle plasma membrane
    • surrounds muscle cell
  96. Sarcoplasm
    • low Ca2+
    • muscle cell cytoplasm
    • inside sarcolemma
    • fluid surrounds myofibrils
  97. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    • high Ca2+
    • smooth ER located between T-tubules
    • stores calcium
  98. T-tubules
    • middle tube of triad
    • opens to outside of sarcolemma
    • contains extracellular fluid
    • high Na+ low K+
  99. Cisternae of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    • enlarged portions of sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • one on each side of the t-tubule in the triad
  100. Inside the Muscle Cell
    low Na+ high K+
  101. Myofibrils
    • 1-2 micrometers in diameter
    • inside sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • sarcomeres
    • myosin and actin filiments
  102. Sarcomere
    • contractile unit of a muscle
    • I band->isotropic light, non overlapping
    • A band->anisotropic dark, does overlap
    • H zone->myosin
    • Z line->"disk" sarcomere runs from 1 Z to another
    • M line->down the middle of a sarcomere
  103. Physiological Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
    • 1.motor neuron fires ACh releases(tells muscle its time to contract)
    • 2.depolarization(action potential reaches t-tubules->muscle gets excited)
    • 3.sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+
    • 4.sarcomere shortens(z lines move toward each other)
    • 5.muscle shortens(tension is produced)
  104. Physiological Mechanism of Muscle Relaxation
    • 1.ACh is removed by AChE(quickly)
    • 2.sarcoplasmic reticulum recaptures the Ca2+
    • 3.active sites are recovered
    • 4.contraction ends
    • 5.relaxation occurs(passively)
  105. Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • action potential causes contraction of a muscle fiber
    • sarcolemma, t-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+, troponin
    • links nerve stimulation with muscle contraction
  106. 4 Ways Skeletal Muscle Obtains ATP
    • ATP is 4-6 secs. worth of contraction
    • 1.creatine phosphate->quickly converts ADP to ATP CP+ATP 10-15 secs. of energy
    • 2.glycolysis->lactic acid(anaerobic) breaks down glycogen 30secs to 2mins energy
    • 3.aerobic respiration->must slow down after glycolysis to breath uses O2 from MYOGLOBIN(myoglobin stores extra O2)supported by cardiovascular system
  107. Twitch
    entire cycle of contraction and relaxation
  108. Latent Period
    time between stimulus and contraction
  109. Tetany
    sustained contraction of muscle fiber
  110. Length-Tension Relationship
    maximum muscle tension can only be reached when actin and myosin overlap OPTIMALLY
  111. Slow Twitch
    • EX. long muscles of back
    • "red fibers"-> red oxygen storing myoglobin
    • aerobic(high oxygen)
    • small
    • least powerful
    • contracts for longer periods of time before getting tired
  112. Fast Twitch
    • EX. eye muscle
    • "white fibers"->less myoglobin
    • lower oxygen and lower blood supply
    • large diameter more powerful
    • tires quickly
  113. Motor Unit Structure
    • single motor neuron PLUS all muscle fibers controlled by that motor neuron
    • the whole muscle is composed of MANY motor units
    • as intensity of stimulation increases # of motor units increases until ALL motor units are active
  114. Recruitment of Motor Units
    increase in number of motor units activated to perform a task
  115. Muscle Tone
    continuous state of partial contraction
  116. Isometric Contraction
    • muscle contracts but length does NOT change
    • EX. holding an object but NOT moving it
  117. Isotonic Contraction
    muscle contracts and length DOES change
  118. Concentric Contraction
    • isotonic
    • muscle shortens
    • EX. lifting a barbell in anotomic position(moving elbow) toward shoulder
  119. Eccentric Contraction
    • isotonic
    • muscle lengthens
    • EX. returning arm back to anotomical position lowering barbell back down
  120. Single Unit Smooth Muscle
    • muscles function in a group(single unit)
    • rhythmicity and peristalsis
    • EX. visceral smooth muscle->walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, respiratory/urinary/reproductive tracts
  121. Multi Unit Smooth Muscle
    • fibers function independantly
    • EX. eye and pilorector muscles, LARGE blood vessels
  122. Sliding Filament Theory
    • actin and myosin don't shorten they slide past each other
    • actin slides toward each other by the help of myosin
  123. How Myosin Moves Actin
    • actin is cover by tropomysin which must be moved out of the way for the myosin to be able to bind with the actin
    • 1.Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to troponin
    • 2.Ca and troponin pull tropomyosin aside and expose the troponin
    • 3.crossbridge binds actin to myosin
    • 4.myosin flexes when it touches actin -> ADP & P are released from myosin
    • 5. ATP causes myosin to detach -> the ATP comes from mytochondria
    • 6.energy of ATP resets head -> ATP turns to ADP & P as head resets
  124. Rigomortis
    without ATP the myosin head doesn't release from the actin and rigomortis occurs because muscles freeze in midcontraction