Spinal nerves and disorders NS 216.txt

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Spinal nerves and disorders NS 216.txt
2010-11-17 00:31:20

spinal nerves and disorders
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  1. Cervical injuries generally cause ___
  2. Thoracic and Lumbar injuries generally cause ___
  3. c1-2 a/w
    head and neck
  4. c3-4 a/w
  5. c4-t2 a/w
    arm, wrist, hand
  6. t2-7 a/w
    chest muscles
  7. t7-12 a/w
    abdominal muscles
  8. L1-5 a/w
  9. s1-5 a/w
    bowel, bladder, sexual function
  10. A spinal injury above ___ results in being placed on a ventilator
  11. Spinal shock (def)
    • loss of reflex function below lesion due to trauma to spinal cord
    • persists for 7-20 days
    • reflex activity, spasticity, and reflex emptying of bladder signal end of spinal shock
  12. Spinal shock (M's)
    • flaccid paralysis
    • absence of sensation below injury
    • loss of bladder function and rectal control
    • transient drop in blood pressure
    • disturbed thermoregulation
  13. Autonomic disreflexia (def)
    usually associated with voiding urges being referred to an autonomic response such as sweating, shivering, or hypertension
  14. Cervical lumbar subluxation results in ___
    • paresthesia and pain in arm and hand
    • reduced neck range of motion
  15. Multiple Sclerosis (def & onset)
    • a chronic progressive demyelinating disorder of the CNS
    • onset is between 20-40 years
    • thought to be related to an abnormal immune response to a viral infection in genetically susceptible adults
  16. What disorder is a/w T-cells damaging the CNS's myelin sheath
    Multiple Sclerosis
  17. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (def)
    • an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nerve system
    • likely a/w an immune system overreaction
  18. What disorder starts in the feet and often follows 1-8 weeks after a GI or respiratory infection, inoculation, or surgical procedure?
    Guillain-Barre Syndrome
  19. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (M's)
    • progressive paralysis beginning in the feet
    • may involve respiratory muscles
    • paresthesia or dysesthesia
    • loss of autonomic regulation (change in BP and cardiac function)
  20. When is the peak disability with Guillain-Barre Syndrome?
    10-14 days
  21. Myasthenia Gravis (def)
    chronic autoimmune disease resulting in muscle weakness
  22. In what disorder does IgG block or destroy Acetylcholine receptors?
    Myasthenia Gravis
  23. Myasthenia Gravis a/w cn 3, 4, and 6 (M's)
    • diplopia
    • ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid)
    • ocular palsy
  24. Myasthenia Gravis a/w cn 9, 10, 11, 12 (M's)
    • dysphagia
    • aspiration pneumonia
  25. What disorder worsens as the day goes by and improves with rest?
    Myasthenia Gravis
  26. Bell's Palsy (def)
    acute paresis (weakness) or paralysis of the facial nerve (cn 7)
  27. Bell's Palsy (M's)
    • unilateral facial weakness
    • unilateral facial droop
    • diminished eye blink
  28. What is a bubble of CSF outside the spine called?
  29. What is a bubble of CSF and spinal nerves outside the spine called?
  30. Cerebral Palsy (def)
    • non-progressive crippling disorder that is present at birth
    • likely cased by prenatal infection, toxins, trauma, lack of oxygen to brain, or hypoglycemia
  31. Cerebral Palsy (M's)
    • spastic muscle action
    • rigid extremities
    • scoliosis
    • contractures
    • dyskinetic (difficulty with purposeful movement)
    • ataxic (hypotonia and gate disturbances)
  32. Cerebral Palsy (general M's)
    • seizures
    • intellectual impairment
    • visual problems
    • hearing impairment
    • communication difficulties
    • bowel or bladder problems
    • orthopedic disabilities