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Only a small portion of genomic DNA is used to code for proteins.
The phenotype of cells differ because of differences in gene expression.
Cells exist in a state of equilibrium where rates of forward reactions are equal rates of the reverse reaction.
Subtle aspects of structural information encoded in genes include specifying sequences of amino acids involved in protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications.
Vaccine development for the HIV virus has been slow because of the variability in surface proteins like gp120.
. The enzyme that makes cAMP from ATP is
a. adenylate cyclase
b. cAMP-dependent protein kinase
c. cAMP phosphodiesterase
d. any phosphatase
e. cAMP-dependent phospholipase
7. GTP - binding proteins
a. can bind either GDP or GTP
b. have GTPase activity
c. act as binary (on/off) switches
d. help amplify a hormone's signal
e. all the above
. Protein kinases can recognize
a. ser or thr residues within a certain primary sequence.
b. lysine residues in the
c. special antibody preparations.
d. hydrophobic patches on the surface of
e. phosphodiester bonds in protein-DNA
with a positive ∆G are said to be
Cells are metastable; spontaneous reactions
a. proceed at a slow rate because high activation energies
b. proceed at a fast rate
because they are favored.
c. proceed readily because of
the availability of ATP.
d. only proceed to the left.
e. proceed at fast rates because of highly
negative ∆G values.
Catalysts work by
a. increasing the energy level
of the transition state.
b. donating functional groups
that become part of the product of the reaction.
c. decreasing the
d. make the ∆G values more favorable.
e. effectively shifting the equilibrium to the
right by mass action.
a. a highly conserved protein found
in most all eukaryotic cells
b. a yeast protein engineered for cell use
c. is secreted
so that it can attach to antigens and aid in antibody recognition
d. is highly
mutated so that it can carry out many diverse functions
e. is localized
to the nucleus and can activate RNA polymerase
Activation of PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A) results in
a. activation of
phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase
phosphorylation and activation of phosphorylase kinase
d. phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen
e. both b and d
a. are enzymes
that cleave phosphates from protein substrates
b. are enzymes
that activate G-proteins
c. are enzymes that transfer the
gamma-phosphate from ATP to a protein substrate
d. are used
during sugar metabolism when mitochondria make ATP
e. modify the 5'
ends of nucleotides.
A protein with ubiquitin bound
a. has 1 N -terminus
and 2 C-termini
b. has 2
N-termini and 2 C-termini
has 2 N-termini and 1 C-terminus
d. has a mutated
e. is no big
Trimeric G-proteins function to couple activated receptors to the production of second messengers like cAMP
DNA sequence information can be used to develop polypeptide antigens.
Binding partners of protein X can be identified in immunoprecipitates with antiX antibodies.
Protein degradation is an ATP-dependent process.
ATP hydrolysis is coupled to non-spontaneous reactions to give them an overall negative ∆G.
Only pure proteins can act as antigens.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by B cell:myeloma hybridomas.
If an enzyme's activity is sensitive to salt and pH, which amino acids might be involved in binding at the active site?
gly and ala
b. trp and phe
glu, lys and his
d. ser, gln, and val
impossible to say
Phosphofructokinase, an important rate-controlling enzyme in glycolysis, is activated allosterically by
AMP and ADP
. B cells respond to ___________ and make___________.
a. light; ATP
b. insulin; sugar
c. cAMP; adrenalin
T cells; antigens
e. antigens; immunoglobulins