The flashcards below were created by user scawrse1 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Compare the number of organisms present in cavitary pulmonary TB and TB infection without the disease. Explain how this affects treatment.
    • - Cavitary pulmonary TB: 10^7 - 10^8 organisms
    • - TB infection w/o disease: <10^5

    Because mutations occur in ~1/10^6 to 1/10^8 organisms, multiple drugs must be used to treat cavitary pulmonary TB in order to prevent emergence of resistant strains. TB infection w/o the disease, however, has few enough organisms that mutation is unlikely and can, therefore, be treated with a single drug.
  2. When is an induration > or = to 5mm indicative of TB infection?
    • For persons with:
    • - HIV
    • - immunosuppressive therapy
    • - close contact with infectious cases
    • - fibrotic lesions on CXR
  3. When is an induration > or = to 10mm indicative of TB infection?
    • When the person is:
    • - an immigrant w/i the last 5 years
    • - an IV drug user
    • - a hospital employee
  4. What size induration is indicative of TB infection in persons with no defined risk?
    PPD induration > or = to 15mm.
  5. What is the preferred treatment for latent TB?
    INH (isoniazid) daily for 9 months.
  6. What factors increase a person's risk of developing TB?
    • - smoking tobacco
    • - vitamin D deficiency
  7. What factors should be considered when taking INH?
    Food decreases absorption and INH should be given on an empty stomach.
  8. Toxicities of INH.
    • - Hepatitis: incidence increases with age; liver enzymes should be monitored in persons >35 y/o.
    • - Peripheral neuropathy: caused by interferance with pyridoxine (B6) metabolism; prevent/treat with pyridoxine daily
    • - Diarrhea: secondary to sorbitol in liquid form of INH
  9. Drug interactions of INH.
    Phenytoin: will increase concentration of both drugs in system
  10. Rifampin, Rifabutin, Rifapentine
    Used to treat TB (not usually first line drug).
  11. Administration considerations for Rifampin, Rifabutin, Rifapentine.
    • - Turns body fluids orange; excreted in urine, tears, and sweat.
    • - Give on empty stomach.
    • - Rifampin/Rifabutin are 1x/day; Rifapentine is 1x/week
  12. Toxicities of Rifampin, Rifabutin, and Rifapentine.
    • - Common: GI (nausea, vomittine)
    • - Rare: hepatitis
    • - Orange colored body fluids
  13. Drug interactions with Rifampin, Rifabutin, Rifapentine.
    • Rifampin, Rifabutin, and Rifapentine are potent inducers of hepatic enzymes and therefore reduce blood levels of:
    • - methodone (leading to withdrawl)
    • - warfarin (leading to decreased INR)
    • - oral contraceptives (leading to decreased effectiveness)
  14. Pyrazinamide
    TB treatment
  15. Toxicities of Pyrazinamide.
    • Hepatitis (monitor liver enzymes)
    • GI (nausea, vomitting)
    • Hyperuricemia (decreases uric acid secretion)
  16. Ethambutol
    TB treatment
  17. Toxicities of Ethambutol.
    - Optic neuritis (blurred vision, red/green blindness, restricted visual fields); dose related; do regular eye exams
  18. Quinolone antibiotics
    • TB treatment.
    • Includes: levoflozacin and moxifloxacin
  19. Combination TB drugs.
    • Rifamate: INH and Rifampin
    • Rifater: INH, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide
Card Set:
2010-11-17 13:10:29
Pharm exam Anti Tuberculin Drugs

Pharm Exam 4, part 1
Show Answers: