Chapter 11

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JChristie20
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5018
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Chapter 11
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2010-01-31 22:41:44
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Anatomy and Physiology Nervous system
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divisions of nervous system
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  1. the sensory speech area is called ______ in the parietal lobe
    wernickes area
  2. the sense of smell arises deep in the ______
    cerebrum
  3. part of the brain that provides the centers for hearing?
    posterior temporal lobes
  4. this part of the brain provides vision
    posterior occipital lobes
  5. sensations of temperature, touch, pressure and pain in the skin arise in the ___?
    postcentral gyri
  6. interprets impulses from sense organs, initiating voluntary musclular movements, storing memory
    cerebrum
  7. a thin layer of gray matter called the ______ ______ contains nearly ______(%) of all neuron cell bodies in the nervous system
    • cerebral cortex
    • 75%
  8. lissencephaly is also known as?
    smooth brain
  9. very deep grove is called a ___?
    fissure
  10. shallow to somewhat deep groove is called ___?
    sulcus
  11. many ridges or convolutions
    gyri
  12. anterior portion of the forebrain is the largest part of the mature brain
    cerebrum
  13. contains cerebrum, pons, medulla oblongata
    hindbrain
  14. Name the 3 major cavities of the brain
    • forebrain
    • midbrain
    • hindbrain
  15. carry motor impulses from the brain to skeletal muscles and coordinate muscle and control posture
    rubrospinal
  16. begins in spinal cord and carries sensory impulses associated with the sensations of pain
    spinothalamic tract
  17. the ascending and descending tracts are comprised of _______?
    axons
  18. happens when a person touches something painful
    withdrawl reflex
  19. each column consists of longitudinal bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that comprise major nerve pathways called?
    nerve tracts
  20. thin cord of connective tissue descends to the upper surface of the coccyx
    Filum terminale
  21. the spinal cord tapers to a structure called the ___?
    conus medullaris
  22. water on the brain
    hydrocephalus
  23. slender column of nervous tissue that is continuous with the brain and extends downward
    spinal cord
  24. CSF in continulously reabsorbed into the blood through tiny fingerlike structures called?
    arachnoid granulations
  25. humans secret _____ mL of CSF daily. only about ____ mL are in the nervous system at any time.
    • 500mL
    • 140mL
  26. can increase pressure between the rigid bones of the skull and the soft tissues of the brain
    subdural hematoma
  27. Timy, reddish cauliflowerlike masses of specialized capillaries from the pai mater is called ______ and secrets ________
    • choroid plexuses
    • cerebrospinal fluid
  28. the ____ ventricle is in the brainstem, just anterior to the cerebellum
    4th
  29. this ventricle communicates with the lateral ventricles through interventricular foramina in its anterior end
    3rd
  30. Bridge of axons that links the 2 cerebral hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  31. the ______ ventricle is in the midline of the brain beneath the corpus callosum
    3rd
  32. the right cerebral hemisphere is the _____ventricle
    2nd
  33. the left cerebral hemisphere is the _______ventricle
    1st
  34. interconnected cavities that lie in the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem
    ventricles
  35. the subarchnoid space contains this clear, watery fluid called?
    cerebrospinal fluid/CSF
  36. sheath around the spinal cord hat is not attached directly to the vertebra
    epidural space
  37. the largest and most complex part of the nervous system
    brain
  38. responds to stimulations by the motor neuron and produces the relfex of behavioral action
    effector
  39. transmits nerve impulse from the brain or spinal cord out to an effector
    motor neuron
  40. serves as processing center...conducts nerve impulse from the sensory meuron to a motor neuron
    interneuron
  41. transmits nerve impulse from the receptor into the brain or spinal cord
    sensory neuron
  42. sensitive to a specific type of internal or external change
    receptor
  43. stroking the sole of the foot in infants results in dorsiflexion and toes that spread apart called the ________ reflex?
    babinski
  44. the normal plantar reflex results in ______- of toes
    flexion
  45. ________ muscles in the linbs are the effectors of a withdral reflex
    flexor
  46. sensory receptors of a withdrawl reflex are located in the _______
    skin
  47. the pateller reflex helps the body to maintain_____?
    posture
  48. effector muscle of the patellar reflex is the _____?
    quadriceps femoris
  49. patellar reflex employs only _______ and ______ neurons
    • sensory
    • motor
  50. effectors of a reflex arc are glands and ______?
    muscles
  51. automatic subconscious responds to external or internal stimuli
    reflexes
  52. interneurons in a withdrawl reflex are located in the _______?
    • CNS
    • spinal cord
  53. routes folloed by nerve impulses as they pass through the nervous system
    nerve pathways
  54. seperates dura mater from bone of vertebra
    epidural space
  55. thin, weblike middle membrain
    arachnoid mater
  56. contains cerebrospinal fluid
    subarachnoid space
  57. follows irregular contours of spinal cord surface
    pia mater
  58. outermost layer of meninges
    dura mater
  59. channel through which venous blood flows
    dural sinus
  60. band of pia mater that anchors dura mater to cord
    denticulate ligament
  61. ascending tract to the brain to give rise to sensations of temperature and pain
    lateral spinothalamic
  62. ascending tract to the cerebellum necessary for coordination of skeletal muscles
    posterior spinocerebellar
  63. descending tract whose fibers conduct motor impulses to skeletal muscles
    corticospinal
  64. descending tract whose fibers conduct major impulses to sweat glands and muscles to control tone
    reticulospinal
  65. ascending tract to the brain to interpret touch, pressure, and body movements
    fasciculus gracilis
  66. longitudinal bundles of nerve fibers within the spinal cord comprise major nerve pathways called _____?
    nerve tracks
  67. white matter of the spinal cord is divided into anterior, lateral, and posterior _____-
    funiculi
  68. this is in the gray commissure of the spinal cord contains cerebrospinal fluid and is continuous with the ventricles of the brain
    central canal
  69. this connects the gray matter on the left and right sides of the spinal cord
    gray commissure
  70. cell bodies of motor neurons are found in the _____- horns of the spinal cord
    anterior
  71. in a spinal cross section this posterior part of the gray matter resemble the upper wings of a butterfly
    horns
  72. the groove that extends the length of the spinal cord posteriorly?
    posterior median solcus
  73. the bulge in the spinal cord that gives off nerves to the lower limbs is called ____?
    lumbar enlargement
  74. the bulge in the spinal cord that gives off nerves to the upper limbs is called ________?
    cervical enlargement
  75. spinal cord gives rise to 31 pairs of ?
    spinal nerves
  76. mases of gray matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres; produce dopamine
    basal nuclei
  77. What disease demonstrates a degeneration of basal
    nuclei?
    Parkinson Disease
  78. What comprises the limbic system?
    hypothalamus, thalamus, basal nuclei
  79. What does the limbic system control?
    emotional experience and expression
  80. What is the tree-like pattern called in the cerebellum?
    arbor vitae
  81. The periperal nervous system consistes of the nerves that branch from the CNS, it includes the _________ that arise from the brain and the _______ that arise from the spinal cord
    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
  82. _________fibers carry impulses outward and __________ fibers carry impulses inward
    • efferent
    • afferent
  83. sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with the sense of smell
    (1) olfactory
  84. sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with the sense of vision
    (II) optic
  85. motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that raise the eyelids, move the eyes, adjust the amount of light entering the eyes, and focus the lenses
    (III) oculomotor
  86. motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that move the eyes; some sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with proprioceptors
    (IV) trochlear or (VI) abducens
  87. sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with taste receptors of the anterior tongue, facial exprressions, tear glands, and salivary glands
    (VII) facial
  88. sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with the sense of equilibrium and the sense of hearing
    (VIII) vestibulocochlear
  89. sensory finers tranmit impulses from the phayynx, tonsils, posterior tongue, and caroid arteries
    (IX) glossopharyngeal
  90. sensory fibers transmit impulses from the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of the thorax and abdomen
    (X) Vagus
  91. motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles of th esoft palate, phaynx, and larynx, the muscles of the neck and back
    (XI) accessory
  92. motor fibers impulses to muscles that move the tongue
    (XII) hypoglossal
  93. sensory branch of a spinal nerve by which it joins the spinal cord
    dorsal root
  94. motor branch of a spinal nerve by which it attaches to the spinal cord
    ventral root
  95. formed by the anterior branches of the first four cervical nerves, supply the muscles and skin of the neck
    cervical plexuses
  96. anterior branches of the lower four cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerves give rise to _________ ___________
    brachial plexuses
  97. formed by the last thoracic nerve and the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves
    lumbosacral plexuses

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