week 10

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week 10
2010-11-17 15:06:49
dendro week

Jones Lake: Carolina Bays and adjacent sandy uplands.
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  1. low shrub
    leaf obovate, acute base, bottom entire, upper serrated,
    spiky pepper fruits
    Coastal Sweet Pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia)
    • Clethra alnifolia (leaves like alder)
    • Clthraceae; swamp pepperbush, white-alder
    • Fruit: capsule
    • bee tree
    • native americans ate leaves like spinach
  2. low shrub (< 3ft)
    leaf bottom entire, top half serrated
    serrations point to tip
    Inkberry (Ilex glabra) berriesInkberry (Ilex glabra) berries
    • Ilex glabra (smooth)
    • Aquifoliaceae; inkberry
    • Fruit: black drupe
    • bee tree
    • fruit bad for humans, good for songbirds, bear
  3. longest needle
    thick lateral branches
    large cone
    white terminal bud
    Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) leavesLongleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) cone
    • Pinus palustris (of the swamp)
    • Pinaceae; longleaf pine
    • *Cone: flat scale, large
    • virgin lumber sold as heart pine
    • formerly naval stores
    • leaves used as mulch
  4. often scrubby form
    nearly evergreen leaf thick and leathery, glossy, short petiole, some have lobes
    Sand Laurel Oak, Darlington Oak (Quercus hemisphaerica)Sand Laurel Oak, Darlington Oak (Quercus hemisphaerica)Sand Laurel Oak, Darlington Oak (Quercus hemisphaerica)
    • Quercus hemisphaerica (hemispherical nut shape)
    • Fagaceae; laurel oak
    • *Fruit: nut
    • red oak
    • sometimes lumped with Quercus laurifolia
  5. smooth shiny leaf w/ 3 or 5 lobes
    wedge shaped base, 3-lobes look like turkey foot
    large pointed terminal bud
    Turkey Oak (Quercus laevis)Turkey Oak (Quercus laevis) acornTurkey Oak (Quercus laevis) leavesTurkey Oak (Quercus laevis) barkTurkey Oak (Quercus laevis) acorn
    • Quercus laevis (smooth. i.e. leaves)
    • Fagaceae; turkey oak
    • *Fruit: nut. cap scales roll under and inside cap
    • unlike most oaks, leaves turn bright red in fall
  6. lobing mixed b/w white- and post oaks
    narrow ridges on bark
    Sand Post Oak (Quercus margaretta)Sand Post Oak (Quercus margaretta) acorn
    • Quercus margaretta
    • Fagaceae; dwarf post oak
    small crooked tree
    semi-evergreen in NC
    oblanceolate leaf
    lots of brown racemesSwamp Titi (Cyrilla racemiflora) leaves
    Swamp Titi (Cyrilla racemiflora) fruits
    • Cyrilla racemiflora (raceme-flowered)
    • Cyrillaceae; titi
    • fruit: drupe-like
    • honey made from this tree can poison honey bee larvae
  8. small shrub < 3ft
    whorled or opp leaves (2-3/node)
    waxy underside
    capsule fruit on now
    Carolina-Laurel (Kalmia carolina)
    • Kalmia angustifolia (narrow-leaved)
    • Ericaceae; sheep-kill
    • fruit: capsule
    • foliage poisonous to humans, livestock
  9. small tree in NC, evergreen.
    alt simple leaf w/ waxy silver underside (glaucus)
    leaves smell sweet, sugary
    smooth gray bark
    new growth greenSweetbay (Magnolia virginiana) leaf
    Sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana) flower
    • Magnolia virginiana (of VA)
    • Magnoliaceae; sweetbay
    • *fruit: follicle
    • lumber sold as magnolia or yellow-poplar
  10. lost leaves already
    bark gray w/ irregular ridges
    leaves smaller than blackgum
    diaphragmed pith
    Swamp Tupelo (Nyssa biflora)Swamp Tupelo (Nyssa biflora)
    • Nyssa biflora (2-flowered)
    • Cornaceae; swamp blackgum
    • Fruit: drupe
    • tupelo honey source
    • OBLIGATE wetland species
    • valuable pulpwood
  11. fragrant leaves
    midvein pubescent on underside
    pubescent new growth/twig
    sSwamp Bay (Persea palustris)Swamp Bay (Persea palustris)Swamp Bay (Persea palustris)
    • Persea palustris (of the swamp)
    • Lauraceae; swampbay
    • bay leaf sub for cooking
    • trees in SC, GA, FL dying from Laurel Wilt disease
  12. not associated w/ a river
    leaves alt.
    entire twigs fall off
    Pondcypress (Taxodium ascendens)Pondcypress (Taxodium ascendens)Pondcypress (Taxodium ascendens)
    • Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium (2-ranked)
    • Cupressaceae; pondcypress
    • *cone: peltate scales
    • Obligate Wetland Species
    • wood valuable for siding, shingles, shakes
  13. tall, straight, narrow crown
    tiny, scale-like, opp, decussate leaf in flat splays
    bark has spiraled twisted shaggy ridges
    Atlantic Whitecedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) barkAtlantic Whitecedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) treeAtlantic Whitecedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) treeAtlantic Whitecedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) cones
    • Chamaecyparis thyoides (similar to Thuja)
    • Cupressaceae; Atlantic whitecedar, juniper
    • *cone scale: peltate
    • wood decay resistant, valuable
    • poles pilings, siding, shingles, boats
    • food for rare butterfly
    • rapidly disappearing in stands due to inadequate regeneration after logging and conversion to ag or loblolly
  14. alt, simple, eliptical evergreen leaf, glabrous, serrated, decurrent base, wedge shaped
    narrow crown
    older bark has thick dep ridges
    capsule egg-shaped w/ long peduncle
    Loblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus) Loblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus) fruitLoblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus)Loblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus)Loblolly Bay (Gordonia lasianthus)
    • Gordonia lasianthus
    • Theaceae (Tea Family); loblollybay, gordonia
    • *fruit: capsule
  15. small/med shrub
    simple, alt, evergreen leathery leaf w/ bristles
    undersides have black dots
    Large Gallberry (Ilex coriacea) leavesLarge Gallberry (Ilex coriacea)Large Gallberry (Ilex coriacea) leaf
    • Ilex coriacea (leathery)
    • Aquifoliaceae; gallberry
    • fruit: black drupe
    • songbirds
  16. small shrub in dense thickets
    alt, simple, leathery, evergreen, glabrous, leaf
    new twigs are flattened, submarginal vein extends along leaf edge/margin
    Shining Fetterbush (Lyonia lucida) fruitsShining Fetterbush (Lyonia lucida) fruits
    • Lyonia lucida (shining)
    • Ericaceae; staggerbush
    • fruit: capsule
  17. loblolly cone on peduncle
    epicormic branches and sprouts on trunk
    longer needles
    • Pinus serotina (late)
    • Pinaceae; pond pine
    • *cone: flat scales
    • lower quality wood
  18. < 1ft
    tiny, alt. simple evergren leaf
    Creeping Blueberry (Vaccinium crassifolium)
    • Vaccinium crassifolium (leaves like Crassula)
    • Ericaceae; creeping blueberry
    • fruit: berry