Chapter 10

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Chapter 10
2010-01-31 21:31:08
Human Anatomy and Physiology Nervous System

Basic structure and function
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  1. sheath of Schwann cell containing cytoplasm and nucleus that encloses myelin
  2. corresponds to rough endoplasmic reticulum in other cells
    chromatophilic surface
  3. network of fine threads extending into nerve fiber
  4. substance of Schwann cell composed of lipoprotein that insultes axons and increases impulse speed
    myelin sheath
  5. neuron process with many branches that conducts an impulse toward the cell body
  6. branch of an axon
  7. star-shaped neuroglia between neurons and blood vessels
  8. nerve fiber arising from a slight elevation of the cell body that conducts an impuse away from the cell body
  9. transmits impulse from sensory to motor neurons within central nervous system
  10. transmits impulse out of the brain or spinal cord to effectors (muscles and glands)
    motor (efferent) neuron
  11. transmits impulse into brain or spinal cord from receptors
    sensory (afferent) neuron
  12. myelin-forming neuroglia in brain and spinal cord
  13. phagocytic neuroglia
  14. structure capable of responding to motor impulse
  15. specialized mass of neuron cell bodies outside the brain or spinal cord
  16. cells that cover the inside spaces of the brain ventricles and help regulate cerebrospinal fluid
    ependymal cell
  17. What are the functions of the nervous system?
    • receiving
    • deciding
    • reacting to stimuli
  18. what are the structures of a neuron
    • the cell body
    • the dendrites
    • the axon
    • the axon terminals
  19. functional connection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron or the membrane of another cell type
  20. a narrow extracellular space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
    synaptic cleft
  21. tiny enlargement at the end of an axon that secretes a neurotransmitter
    synaptic knob
  22. contain many unmyelinated axons and neuron cell bodies
    gray matter
  23. groups of mylenated axons
    white matter
  24. structural support, formation of scar tissue, transport of substances between blood vessels and neurons, communicate with one another and with neurons
  25. form myelin sheaths in the brain and spinal cord, produce nerve growth factors
  26. structural support and phagocytosis
  27. form a porous layer through which substances diffuse between the interstitual fluid of the brain and spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid
  28. cell body with many processes, one of which is an axon, the rest dendrites
    multipolar neuron
  29. cell body with a process, arising from each end, one axon and one dendrite
    bipolar neuron
  30. cell body with a single proess that divides itno 2 branches and functions as an axon
    unipolar neuron
  31. which typye of neuron is most common in the brain or spinal cord?
    multipolar neuron
  32. conducts nerve impulses from receptors in peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord
    sensory neuron
  33. transmits nerve impulses between neurons in the brain and spinal cord
  34. conducts nerve impulses from the brain or spinal cord out to effectors-muscles or glands
    motor neuron
  35. What is resting potential and the approximate value in millivolts?
    • one that is not sending impulses or responding to other neurons
    • (-70) millivolts
  36. sequence of electrical changes in part of a nerve cell membrane exposed to a stimulus that exceeds threshold
    action potential
  37. What occurs during polarization of a nerve fiber?
    unequal distribution of positive and negative ions on either side of the membrane
  38. increase in the negitivity of the resting potential of a cell membrane
  39. nerve impulse conduction that seems to jump from one node to the next
    saltatory conduction
  40. communication of an impulse from one neuron to the next
    synaptic transmission
  41. if a neurotransmitter binds to a postsynaptic receptor and opens sodium ion channels, the ions diffuse inward, depolarizing the membranse, possibly triggering an action potential
    excitatory postsynaptic potential
  42. neurotransmitter binds other receptors and increases membrane permeability to potassium ions, these ions diffuse outward. hyperpolarizing the membrane
    inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  43. controls skeletal muscle actions; stimulates skeletal muscle contraction at neuromuscular junctions.
  44. creates a sense of well-being; low levels may lead to depression; may excite or inhibit autonomic nervous system actions, depending on receptors
  45. creates a snese of well being; deficiency in some brain areas associated with parkinson disease; limited actions in autonomic nervous sustem; may excite or inhibit, depending on receptors
  46. primarily inhibitory; leads to sleepiness; action is blocked by LSD, enhanced by selective seritonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant drugs
  47. release in hypothalamus promotes alertness
  48. Aminio Acids
    -Generally inhibitory
  49. Amino Acids
    -generally excitatory
  50. Neuropeptides
    -Generally ingibitory; reduce pain by inhibiting substance P release
    • enkephalins
    • endorphins
  51. Neuropeptides
    -excitatory; pain perception
    substance P
  52. Gases
    -may play role in memory; vasodilation
    Nitric Oxide
  53. the more _____ that enters the synaptic knob, the more vesicles release neurotransmitters
  54. If calcium is deficient in the blood, what happens to
    the muscles?
    the muscle continuously spasm
  55. Which neurotransmitter imbalances are associated with Alzheimer disease?
  56. Which neurotransmitter imbalances are associated with Parkinson disease?
  57. Which neurotransmitter imbalances are associated with epilepsy?
    excess GABA lead to excess norepinephrine and dopamine
  58. Which neurotransmitter imbalances are associated with insomnia
    deficient serotonin
  59. Which neurotransmitter imbalances are associated with mania
    excess norepinephrine