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There can be 0, 1, or 2 electrons in an orbital. If there are two electrons in a single orbital they will have opposite spins.
Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
Ionization Energy, IE
The minimal amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral gaseous atom. Endothermic. Decreases the size of the atom. Decreases as you move down the families, increases as you move left to right.
Electron Affinity, EA
A measure of the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atom. Exothermic. Makes atoms larger. Decreases as you move down families, increases as you move left to right.
Affected by the effective nuclear charge of an atom. Increases in size as you move down the table, decreases as you move left to right.
Effective Nuclear Charge, ENC
(# of protons in the nucleus) + (# of shielding e-)
Has unpaired electrons
No unpaired electrons.
What are they?
What to they stand for?
- 4: n, l, m, s
- n, principal: relative distance of the e- from the nucleus (1, Infinity - 1)
- l, secondary: shape and type of orbital (0, n-1)
- m, magnetic: Orientation of the orbital (-L, +L)
- s, spin: Spin of the electron (+/- 1/2)
S-Orbital Shape and l value
P orbital: Shape, l value and how many in an energy state
l = 1
3 to an energy state
D orbital Shape, l value and how many in an energy state
- l = 2
- 5 to an energy state
Developed the first modern model of the atom. Thought electrons circled the nucleus like planets around the sun.
Demolished Bohr's model by stating we can't know where and how fast an electron is and that the act of observing changes the outcome.
Duality of nature: an electron acts as both a wave and a particle
Wrote the formula to find the probable spot an electron could be. The formula gives us quantum numbers which tell us which orbital certain electrons will probably be in.
Wrote equation to determine energy released by an electron falling towards the nucleus.
Chromium and Copper Exception
Take an electron from the 4s orbital and move it into the 3d orbital.