Radiology

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Author:
sthomp88
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50258
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Radiology
Updated:
2010-11-18 08:28:12
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Chapter twenty one
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Occlusal and localization techniques
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  1. technique used to examine large areas of the upper or lower jaw
    occlusal technique
  2. the chewing surfaces of the posterior teeth
    occlusal surfaces
  3. a type of intraoral radiographic examination used to inspect large areas of the maxilla or mandible on one film
    occlusal examination
  4. the method used to expose a film in the occlusal examination
    occlusal technique
  5. What size of film is used in the occlusa technique for adults? for children?
    • size 4
    • size 2
  6. The occlusal technique is a__________radiographic technique that is used in conjunction with_________or__________ radiographs
    • suplementary
    • periapical
    • bitewing
  7. What are 2 reasons why the occlusal radiograph is preferred?
    • when are of interest is larger than a PA film
    • when placement of PA film is too difficult for patient
  8. How many purposes are there for using occlusal radiographs
    10
  9. What is the purpose of an occlusal film in regards to extracted teeth?
    to locate retained roots
  10. Purpose of occlusal films. To locate___________teeth, ___________teeth, and __________teeth.
    • supernumerary (extra)
    • unerupted
    • impacted
  11. What is the purpose of an occlusal film in regards to salivary glands?
    to locate salivary stones in the duct of the submanibular gland
  12. Purpose of occlusal films. What are 3 types of lesions that occlusal films are used to examine the extent of in either the maxilla or mandible
    • cysts
    • tumors
    • malignancies
  13. What is the purpose of the occlusal film in regards to the maxillary sinus?
    to evaluate the boundaries of it
  14. true or false. One of the purposes of the occlusal film is to evaluate fractures in the maxilla or mandible.
    true
  15. Purpose of occlusal films. To aid in the examination of patients who cannot_______ ________ ________more than a few millimeters
    open their mouths
  16. One of the purposes of the occlusal film is to measure changes in the_________and_________of the maxilla or mandible
    • size
    • shape
  17. Which arch is the white side of the film facing in the occlusal technique?
    white side of the film faces the arch being exposed
  18. what are the 3 mandibular occlusal projections?
    • topographic
    • cross-sectional
    • pediatric
  19. projection used to examine the buccal and lingual aspects of the mandible. Also to locate foreign bodies or salivary stones in the region of the floor of the mouth
    mandibular cross-section occlusal projection
  20. projection used to examine the anterior teeth of the mandible
    mandibular topographic occlusal projection
  21. How should the PID be positioned and at what angle, for the mandibular topographic occlusal projection?
    • central ray is at -55 degree angle to the center of the chin
    • PID centered over the chin
  22. How should the PID be positioned and angled for the mandibular cross-section occlusal projection?
    • Recline patient so the mandibular arch is perpendicular to the floor
    • central ray is at 90 degrees to the center of the film
    • PID centered 1 inch below the chin
  23. for which projection of occlusal film is the patient reclined so the mandibular arch is perpendicular to the floor?
    mandibular cross-section occlusal projection
  24. projection used to examine the anterior teeth of the mandible and is recommended for use in children 5 years old or younger
    mandibular pediatric occlusal projection
  25. How should you position and angle the PID for the mandibular pediatric occlusal projection?
    • central ray is directed at -55 degrees
    • PID centered over chin
  26. a method used to locate the position of a tooth or object in the jaws
    localization technique
  27. What are 2 relationships that a dental radiograph depicts an object? What relationship does it not depict?
    • superior-inferior
    • anterior-posterior
    • buccal-lingual
  28. Name 9 items that the localization technique is used to locate.
    • foreign bodies
    • impacted teeth
    • unerupted teeth
    • retained roots
    • root poitions
    • salivary stones
    • jaw fractures
    • broken needles and instruments
    • filling materials
  29. What are the 2 basic techniques used to localized objects?
    • buccal object rule
    • right-angle technique
  30. a rule governing the orientation of structures portrayed in 2 radiographs exposed at different angles
    buccal object rule
  31. Describe the process of taking radiographs in the buccal object rule.
    one film is exposed using proper technique and angulation, and a second film is exposed after changing the direction of the x-ray beam.
  32. A different horizontal angulation is used when trying to locate_________aligned images, and a different vertical angulation is used when trying to locate_________aligned images
    • vertically
    • horizontally
  33. What is an example of a vertically aligned image that the buccal object rule is used to locate?
    root canals
  34. What is an example of a horizontally aligned image that the buccal object rule is used to locate?
    mandibular canal
  35. When the object seen in the radiograph appears to have moved in the same direction as the shift of the PID, the object in question is positioned where?
    to the lingual
  36. If the horizontal angulation is changed by moving the PID mesially, and the object in question shifts mesially on the radiograph, the the object lies where?
    to the lingual
  37. When the dental object seen in the second radiograph appears to have moved in the direction opposite of the shift of the PID, the object in question is positioned where?
    to the buccal side
  38. If the horizontal angulation is changed by shifting the PID distally, and the object in question moves mesially on the radiograph, the the object lies where?
    to the buccal side
  39. What does SLOB stand for?
    Same = Lingual; Opposite = Buccal
  40. a rule for the orientation of strucures seen in 2 radiographs where one film is exposed using proper technique and angulation, and then an occlusal film is taken directing the central ray perpendicular to the film.
    right-angle technique
  41. What is the right-angle technique primarily used for?
    locating objects in the mandible
  42. the periapical film taken in the right-angle technique is used to show the position of the object in the______ ________and________ ________relationships, and the occlusal film shows the object in the________ _______ and________ __________.
    • superior-inferior
    • anterior-posterior
    • buccal-lingual
    • anterior-posterior
  43. Where is the occlusal film placed in the mouth?
    between the occlusal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth
  44. When is the occlusal film stabilized in the patients mouth?
    when the patient gently bites down on the surface of the film
  45. What is the step-by-step procedure for occlusal films in order?
    • patient preparation
    • equipment preparation
    • film placement methods
  46. Where should the patient chair be positioned for the occlusal films?
    in an upright position, and at a comfortable working level for the radiographer
  47. Where must the patients head be positioned for maxillary occlusal films? for SOME mandibular films?
    • upper arch is parallel with the floor, and midsagittal plane is perpendicular to the floor
    • reclined and positioned so the occlusal plane is perpendicular to the floor
  48. What are the 3 different maxillary occlusal projections?
    • topographic
    • lateral (right or left)
    • pediatric
  49. used to examine the palate and the anterior teeth of the maxilla
    maxillary topographic occlusal projection
  50. Where is the PID positioned and aligned for the maxillary topographic occlusal projection?
    • central ray at +65 degrees to the center of film
    • top edge of PID between the eyebrows on the bridge of nose
  51. used to examine the palatal roots of the molar teeth, may be used to locate foreign bodies or lesions in the posterior maxilla
    maxillary lateral (right or left) occlusal projection
  52. Where is the PID positioned and aligned for the maxillary lateral occlusal projection?
    • central ray at +60 degrees to the center of the film
    • to edge of PID placed over the corner of the eyebrow
  53. used to examine the anterior teeth of the maxilla and is recommended for children 5 years old or younger
    maxillary pediatric occlusal projection
  54. Where is the PID positioned and aligned for the maxillary pediatric occlusal projection?
    • central ray at + 60 degrees toward the center of the film
    • top edge of PID is placed between the eyebrows on the bridge of the nose

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