Science Chapter 4

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Science Chapter 4
2010-01-24 20:29:54
Grade 8 Science Chapter 4

Science Notes
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  1. Force
    a push or pull that causes movement
  2. Flow Rate
    how quickly a fluid flows in a given amount of time
  3. Dynamic
    a term described systems that involve movement, such as moving fluids
  4. Aerodynamics
    air or gas moving around solid objects
  5. Hydrodynamics
    the motion of liquids (usually water) around solid objects
  6. Melting
    the process of a substance changing from a solid to a liquid
  7. Evaporation
    the process of changing a substance from a liquid to a gas
  8. Condensation
    the process of changing a substance from a gas to a liquid
  9. Solidification
    the process of changing a substance from a liquid to a solid
  10. Sublimation
    • the process of changing water directly from a gas to a solid
    • or from a solid to a gas
  11. Kinetic
    Molecular Theory
    • 1. All matter is composed of molecules or other types of
    • particles

    2. Particles are in constant motion

    3. There are forces of attraction among particles
  12. Laminar Flow
    flow in which a fluid travels in straight, or almost straight, lines
  13. Turbulent Flow
    • fluid flow characterized by irregular patterns when water is
    • unable to flow in straight lines
  14. Drag
    • a force (air or water resistance) that acts to slow a body
    • moving through a fluid
  15. Streamlined
    shaped to create laminar flow, has less air or water resistance (drag)
  16. Viscosity
    the resistance of a fluid to flowing and movement
  17. Cohesion
    the attractive forces among the particles of a substance
  18. Adhesion
    • the attractive forces between the particles of a fluid and
    • the particles of another substance
  19. Surface Tension
    • the increased attraction among the particles at the surface
    • of a liquid
  20. Viscometer
    an instrument that measures viscosity
  21. Flow Rate Formula
    • volume of fluid (mL)
    • time (s)
  22. Mass
    the amount of matter in an object
  23. Weight
    measurement of the force of gravity pulling on the object
  24. Volume
    a measure of the amount of space occupied by matter
  25. the volume of a rectangular solid FORMULA
    volume = length x width x height
  26. the volume of a small irregular solid FORMULA
    Volume of object = (volume of water + object) – (volume of water)
  27. Density

    Den. Of
    saltwater x 100% = .92g/cm3 x 100%

    1.03 g/cm2

    = 89%

    • Den. Of
    • saltwater x 100% = .92g/cm3 x 100%

    1.03 g/cm2

    = 89%
  28. Density – g/cm3
    • Density = mass – g/mL
    • Volume
  29. Positive Buoyancy
  30. Negative Buoyancy
  31. Neutral Buoyancy
  32. Buoyancy
    the upward force that a fluid exerts on an object