Nutrition

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Author:
jaimee781
ID:
50280
Filename:
Nutrition
Updated:
2010-11-17 17:33:13
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Nutrition
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Nutrition
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  1. Adequate nutrition essential for:
    • 1. Growth
    • 2. Nml body system function
    • 3. Resistance to infection
    • 4. Repair of tissues
  2. Mirconutrients
    • 1. Vitamins
    • 2. Minerals
    • 3. Electrolytes
  3. Macronutrients
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Proteins
    • 3. Fats
  4. Energy produced from calories for
    1. Carbs
    2. Protein
    3. Fat
    • 1. 4cal/gm
    • 2. 4cal/gm
    • 3. 9cal/gm
  5. How much and where are body stores for carbs
    How long does this last
    • 250gm (1000 cal)
    • Stored in liver and muscle as glycogen
    • Lasts approx 15-20 hours
  6. How much and where are body stores for protein
    • 6,000gm (24,000 cal)
    • Stored as plasma, hgb, clotting components, hormones, antibodies, skeletal and smooth muscle
  7. How much and where are body stores for fat
    • 15,000gm (135,000cal)
    • Stored as triglycerides
  8. In the starvation process what order are stores used
    Is metabolism increased or decreased
    • During first 15-20 hours glycogen (carbs) from muscle and liver--> Fat--> Protein
    • Metabolism decreases
  9. In the stress process what order are stores used
    Is metabolism increased or decreased
    • First 15-20 hours, CHO stores are used--> Protein
    • Metabolism increased
  10. When can you see the starvation process
    in chronic illness
  11. When can you see the stress process
    in major trauma, major sx, sepsis, burns
  12. At what age is the brain 100% of adult size?
    8
  13. How many fewer calories are needed after puberty
    • 200-300 fewer calories.
    • Obesity occurs is caloric intake does not decrease
  14. Indications for a nutritonal assessment
    1. Overwight or underweight
    2. Unintentional weight loss
    • 1. <80% of IBW or >120% of IBW
    • 2. >10 lbs or > or equal to 10% of usual weight
  15. Recommended total fat intake
    25-35% total calories
  16. Recommended saturated fat intake
    • <7% total calories
    • Found in meat fat, palm oil, coconut oil
  17. Recommended polyunsaturated fat intake
    • <10% of total calories
    • Found in corn oil and safflower oil
  18. Recommended monounsaturated fat intake
    • <20% of total calories
    • Found in olive oil, avocado
  19. Recommended cholesterol fat intake
    • <200mg/day
    • Comes from an animal source
  20. Recommended CHO intake
    • 50-60% of total calories
    • Preferably from fruits, grains, veggies
  21. Recommended PRO intake
    14-20% total calories
  22. Recommended fiber intake
    25-30gm/day
  23. Ideal body weight for women
    • 100 lbs for first 5 ft plus 5 lbs for each additional inch
    • +/- 10% for large/small frame
  24. Ideal body weight for men
    106lbs for first 5ft plus 6lbs for each additional inch
  25. BMI for underweight
    <18.5
  26. BMI for nml
    18.5-24.9
  27. BMI for overweight
    25-29.9
  28. BMI for obese
    > or equal to 30
  29. Body wieght as a % of IBW
    1. Mild malnutrition
    2. Moderate malnutrition
    3. Severe malnutrition
    • 1. 80-90% of IBW
    • 2. 70-79% of IBW
    • 3. <70% of IBW
  30. Increased risk for waist circumfrence
    1. Females
    2. Males
    • 1. >35inches
    • 2. >40inches
  31. Metabolic Syndrome
    Three of the following:
    • BP > or equal to 130/85
    • FBG > or equal to 110
    • TG > or equal to 150
    • Decreased HDL (women <50) (men<40)
    • Increased waist circumfrence (women >35) (men >40)
  32. Calculations for BMR
    • Harris-Benedict equation
    • Mifflin equation
  33. Nml Hgb levels for
    1. Females
    2. Males
    • 1. 12-16 g/dl
    • 2. 14-18 g/dl
  34. Nml hematocrit
    1. Females
    2. Males
    • Hbg x 3
    • Females: 36-46%
    • Males: 37-49%
  35. Goals for cholesterol
    <200mg/dl
  36. Goal for HDL
    >50mg/dl
  37. Goals for LDL
    • <160mg/dl (0-1 CAD risk factor)
    • <130mg/dl (> or equal to 2 CAD risk factors)
    • <100mg/dl (CAD, DM or <70 in some cases)
  38. Marasmus
    PRO and calorie malnutrition (e.g. CA cachexia)
  39. Kwashiorkor
    • Diets high in CHO and calories, but low in PRO
    • 3rd world countries
  40. Serum Albumin
    • Long half life (17-20 days)
    • Indicated nutritional status almost 3wks prior
    • Nml 3.5-5.5 gm/dl
  41. Serum Transferrin (Protein that carries iron)
    • Shorter half life than albumin (8-10 days)
    • Earlier indicator of malnutrition than serum albumin
  42. Prealbumin
    • Shortest half life (2-3 days)
    • More reflective of current nutritional status

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