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the view that most of the protections of the bill of rights apply to state governments through the fourteenth amendment's protection against state government action (due process clause)
Civil War Amendments
- Thirteenth-neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the US. Fourteenth-all persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US. the states cannot deprive a person of life liberty and freedom without due process of law.
- Fifteenth-gave blacks the right to vote
Brown v Board of Education
1954 oliver brown wanted his daughter to go to a white school that was much closer to his house. segregation of races in the public schools violate the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.
Bakke sued the university of california for reverse discrimination
Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Inc.
supreme court adressed title VII (prohibits gender discrimination in employment) protection be extended to cover situations in which individuals are harassed by members of the same gender.
Civil Rights Act 1964
outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women. Title VII prohibits gender discrimination in employment and has been used to strike down employment policies that discriminate against employees on the basis of gender. discrimination based on pregnancy. sexual harrassment in the workplace.
Voting Rights Act 1965
1. oulawed discriminatory voter registration tests 2. certain political subdivisions could not change thir voting procedures and election laws without federal approval.
the right to vote. susan b anthony and elizabeth cady stanton formed national woman suffrage association to achieve major improvements in the economic and social situation of women in the US.
Equal Rights Amendment
1972 equality of rights shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex. conservative organizations was effective in blocking the ratification of the ERA.
because the barriers faced by women in the corporate world are subtle and not easily pinpointed, they have been referred to as the "glass ceiling." corporations have created the "mommy track" therefore women break through the glass ceiling.
a policy in education admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Americans with Disabilities Act
requires all public buildings and public services be accessible to persons with disabilities. employers must reasonably accomodate the needs of workers with disabilities. does not require that unqualified applicants be hired.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of age unless age is shown to be a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the particular business. later prohibits mandatory retirement rules for most employees under the age of 70.
Defense of Marriage Act
bans federal recognition of lesbian and gay couples and allows state governments to ignore same sex marriages performed in other states. fueled from when the hawaii supreme court ruled that denying marriage licenses to gay couples might violate their state constitution.
Plessy v Ferguson
seperate but equal, does not violate the equal protection clause.
Bowers v Hardwick
the court upheld a georgia law that made homosexual conduct between two adults a crime. the court revised its position in lawrence v texas and said laws against sodomy violate the due process clause.
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