525 exam 2 drugs

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525 exam 2 drugs
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2010-11-17 22:48:21
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525 exam 2 drugs
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  1. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... ASPIRIN
    • NSAID
    • irreversible acetylation of cox-1 and cox-2
    • 4As: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-thrombotic
    • 4-6 hr duration
  2. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... IBUPROFEN (Advil, Motrin)
    • NSAID
    • reversible inhibitor of cox-1 and cox-2
    • 4As, but weaker anti-thrombotic
    • ~4 hr duration, fewer GI effects
  3. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... NAPROXEN (Aleve)
    • NSAID
    • reversible inhibitor of cox-1 and cox-2
    • 4As, but weaker anti-thrombotic
    • ~8 hr duration, fewer GI effects
  4. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... INDOMETHACIN (Indocin)
    • NSAID
    • reversible inhibitor of cox-1 and cox-2
    • 4As, but weaker anti-thrombotic
    • more potent anti-inflammatory agent
    • GI side effects, headaches and dizziness
  5. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... ACETAMINOPHEN (Tylenol, Excedrin, cold medicines)
    • unclear mechanism, cox-3 inhibitor?
    • no anti-inflammatory, no anti-thrombotic action!!!
    • analgesic and anti-pyretic
    • ~4 hr duration, minimal GI effects
  6. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... MORPHINE
    • opoid analgesic, for severe pain
    • IV, not very active if given orally
    • 4-5 hr duration
    • analgesic, anti-tussive, anesthesia, anti-diarrhea
  7. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... CODEINE
    • opoid analgesic, for mild to moderate pain
    • 12 times less potent than morphine
    • analgesic and anti-tussive
    • tylenol #2 and #3 = acetaminophen and codeine
  8. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... HEROIN
    • opoid analgesic
    • rapidly crosses the BBB and is metabolized to morphine
    • 3 times AS potent as morphine
  9. Lecture 1: Dr. Skacel... CAPSAICIN (Capzasin, Zostrix)
    • topical OTC agent, analgesic
    • used mainly for arthritis, mild muscle aches and pain
    • with prolonged use, leads to desensitization of nociceptor
    • reduces the release of substance P in type C receptor
  10. Lecture 2: Dr. Nickola... PILOCARPINE
    • parasympathetic stimulation
    • directly mimics the effects of ACh
    • exogenous muscarinic agonist
    • rarely used clinically since numerous unwanted SLUDGE side effects
    • used to treat XEROSTOMIA (excessive dry mouth), result = increase salivation
  11. Lecture 2: Dr. Nickola... DONEPEZIL (AriceptTM)
    • parasympathetic stimulation
    • indirectly by increasing the ability of ACh
    • inhibits acetlycholinesterase! decrase ACh catabolism so more ACh available
    • used for ALZHEIMERS, incrased ACh helps neuronal functions
    • side effects include diarrhea and increased urination
  12. Lecture 2: Dr. Nickola... ATROPINE
    • parasympathetic inhibiton, decrease cholinergic activity
    • ANTI-MUSCARINIC: muscarinic receptor ANTAGONIST (blocks muscarinic receptor)
    • naturally occuring in nightshade/belladonna
  13. Lecture 2: Dr. Nickola... TOLTERODINE (DetrolTM)
    • parasympathetic inhibition, decrease cholinergic activity
    • ANTI-SPASMODIC: reduces muscle spasms and secretions
    • acts on bladder to help INCONTINENCE
  14. Lecture 2: Dr. Nickola... IPRATROPIUM (AtroventTM)
    • parasympathetic inhibition, decrease colinergic activity
    • ANTI-SPASMODIC: reduces muscle spasms ans secretions
    • acts on bronchioles to help ASTHMA
  15. Lecture 2: Dr. Nickola... SCOPOLAMINE
    • parasympathetic inhibition, decrease cholinergic activity
    • ANTI-EMETIC: decrease nausea and vomiting
    • decreases vestibular input to vomit center in medulla
  16. Lecture 3: Dr. Richard... PRAZOSIN
    • a-1 antagonist
    • used to treat raynaud's syndrome
    • raynaud's syndrome: eye/skin disorder, increased sympathetic innervation to peripheral blood vessels.... more NE leads to more a-1 stimulation that causes more vessel constriction, less blood to ears, nose, fingers and toes
    • hypertension: to decrease heart rate and decrease stroke volume
  17. Lecture 3: Dr. Richard... METOPROLOL
    • beta-1 antagonist
    • used for heart attack to decrease HR and SV
  18. Lecture 3: Dr. Richard... DOBUTAMINE
    • beta-1 agonist
    • used to treat heart failure to increase HR and SV
    • heart isn't contracting as strong as it should so give agonist to beta-1 receptor
  19. Lecture 3: Dr. Richard... ALBUTEROL
    • beta-2 agonist (inhaled)
    • used to treat asthma
    • remember beta-2 acts to relax bronchioles, increase the amount of air coming in

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