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SQ numbers
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  1. Fraction of global energy consumption used in the United States
    1/5
  2. Fraction of world’s gross national product made up by the United States gross national product
    1/4
  3. Fraction of farmers who left their homes during the Dust Bowl
    1/3
  4. Fraction of the world’s oil that lies in the Middle Eastern countries of Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Azerbaijan; amount of energy produced from tar sands that goes into mining those tar sands
    2/3
  5. Number of times greater the water reserves in glaciers are compared to groundwater reserves
    3
  6. Factor by which oil production in Alberta’s tar sands should increase by 2030
    5
  7. Number of times larger the amount of carbon dioxide produced from tar sands is compared to conventional oil
    6
  8. Number of times larger than Earth the ice protoplanets measured
    10
  9. Number of times smaller the water reserves stored in freshwater streams and lakes are compared to groundwater reserves
    40
  10. Average particle diameter for clay
    0.005 millimeters
  11. Particle diameter for sand
    0.6 to 2 millimeters
  12. Length of Mesosaurus; equivalent to 2 feet
    ½ meter
  13. Current level of annual coal consumption in the United States
    1 billion tons
  14. Average life span of a species
    1 million to 2 million years
  15. Number of years it should take plaentesimals to accumulate into an Earth-sized mass
    1 million years
  16. Distance moved by a tectonic plate annually; equivalent to 0.4 to 4 inches
    1 to 10 centimeters
  17. Remaining oil reserves
    1.2 trillion barrels
  18. Amount of carbon released into the atmosphere annually in the United States
    1.7 gigatons
  19. Estimated amount of material indirectly moved by humans annually due to increased erosion from agriculture and deforestation
    10 billion tons
  20. Depth beneath which metamorphism occurs
    10 kilometers
  21. amount of sediment accumulated on the Bahaman banks since the Jurassic time
    10 kilometers
  22. depth at which Jurassic deposits now lie along the Bahaman banks
    10 kilometers
  23. Maximum depths of Devil’s corkscrews
    10 meters
  24. Average shrinkage of carbonate rocks in vegetated, temperate climates over 1,000 years
    10 millimeters
  25. Number of years it takes most solar nebulae to lose their hydrogen and helium reserves
    10 million years
  26. Amount of ash released by Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991
    10 billion to 25 billion tons
  27. Number of years United States natural gas reserves will last
    10 years
  28. Amount of material moved annually by tectonic plates, rivers, volcanoes, and glaciers
    100 billion tons
  29. Maximum water height variations in man-made control reservoirs
    100 feet
  30. Maximum distance landslides travel in one hour
    100 miles
  31. Amount of land suffering from the loss of topsoil by 1934 during the Dust Bowl
    100 million acres
  32. Number of years it took for planetesimals to accumulate into larger bodies
    100 million years
  33. Amount of land lost due to subsidence in Louisiana annually; equivalent to 40 square miles
    100 square kilometers
  34. Length of time monitored by NASA’s Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project
    100 years
  35. Number of barrels dumped into the Gulf of Mexico each day in 1979
    100,000 barrels
  36. Maximum depth of water found during research drilling
    11 kilometers
  37. Depth of deepest hole, located in Russia
    12 kilometers
  38. Amount of earth that covered Canada’s Highway 3 after the Hope Mountain landslides
    130 million tons
  39. Amount of rock uplifted during tectonic plate collisions annually
    14 billion tons
  40. amount of sediment transported to oceans by rivers annually
    14 billion tons
  41. Width of the largest landslide recorded; equivalent to 9 miles
    14 kilometers
  42. Amount of land seized by the government under the Taylor Grazing Act
    140 million acres
  43. Maximum height of dunes formed during the Dust Bowl; equivalent to 4.6 to 6.1 meters
    15 to 20 feet
  44. Equivalent amount of oil found in the Alberta tar sands
    180 billion barrels
  45. Length of the largest landslide recorded; equivalent to 12 miles
    19 kilometers
  46. United States oil production levels in 2004
    2 billion barrels
  47. Typical depths for the oil window
    2 to 5 kilometers
  48. Amount of sand required to produce one barrel of oil in the tar sands
    2 tons
  49. Average annual evaporation in the San Joaquin Valley
    2,300 millimeters
  50. Estimated oil resources beneath Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
    20 to 30 billion barrels
  51. Height of tower karst in Guilin, China
    200 meters
  52. Numbers of barrels of oil spilled when Exxon Valdez ran ashore in 1989
    240,000 barrels
  53. Remaining uranium reserves
    240,000 quads
  54. Average annual precipitation in the San Joaquin Valley
    250 millimeters
  55. Atmospheric carbon levels prior to Industrialization
    280 parts per million
  56. Amount of rock and sediment moved annually in the United States for road construction
    3 billion tons
  57. Depth of impermeable clay layer in San Joaquin Valley
    3 to 23 meters
  58. Depth of topsoil removed during the Dust Bowl; equivalent to 7 to 10 centimeters
    3 to 4 inches
  59. Remaining coal resources worldwide
    3.1 trillion metric tons
  60. Tons of rock mined annually in the United States
    3.8 billion tons
  61. Worldwide oil production levels in 2004
    30 billion barrels
  62. Tons of igneous rock created by volcanoes annually
    30 billion tons
  63. Average flow per day in the High Plains aquifer
    30 centimeters
  64. Minimum distance required to purify sewage-containing water flowing through sand
    30 meters
  65. Estimated amount of earth material moved directly by humans annually
    30 to 35 billion tons
  66. Maximum wave height reached when material slid into the Vaiont Reservoir; equivalent to 100 meters
    300 feet
  67. Amount of land ruined by 1934 during the Dust Bowl
    35 million acres
  68. Remaining amount of nonrenewable energy reserves worldwide
    360,000 quads
  69. Current atmospheric carbon levels
    380 parts per million
  70. Estimated amount of oil that could be efficiently drilled from Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
    4 to 12 billion barrels
  71. Maximum depth for calcareous ooze; equivalent to 13,000 feet
    4,000 meters
  72. Amount of sediment transported by glaciers annually
    4.3 billion tons
  73. Estimated amount of earth material moved by humans annually
    40 billion tons
  74. amount of sediment moved within rivers annually
    40 billion tons
  75. Number of years for oil reserves to run out at current consumption levels
    40 years
  76. Amount of oil extracted from the Alberta tar sands annually
    400 million barrels
  77. Number of gallons in one barrel
    42 gallons
  78. Amount of arid land in North America
    450 million hectares
  79. Annual worldwide energy consumption as of 2007
    460 quads
  80. The global population doubling time as of 1974
    47 years
  81. Half-life of 87Rb
    48.8 billion years
  82. Height of wave released after the coal mine waste dam gave way in Buffalo Hallow, West Virginia; equivalent to 15 feet
    5 meters
  83. Amount of new land plowed between 1925 and 1930 in the United States
    5 million acres
  84. Length of time it took for the global population to double from 100 million to 200 million
    5,000 years
  85. Half-life of 14C
    5,730 years
  86. Level of cultivated land in the United States in the 1930s; equivalent to 215 million hectares
    530 million acres
  87. Depth of groundwater if reserves were distributed evenly across all land
    55 meters
  88. Depths where igneous and metamorphic rocks dominate
    6 to 10 kilometers
  89. Amount of carbon released into the atmosphere worldwide in 2001
    6.8 gigatons
  90. Maximum height of capillary fringe
    60 centimeters
  91. Maximum height reached by a fountain in an artesian system
    60 meters
  92. Maximum diameter of horseshoe atolls; equivalent to 40 miles
    65 kilometers
  93. Average depth of the High Plains aquifer
    65 meters
  94. Remaining coal reserves
    67,500 quads
  95. Amount of earth material moved by each human annually
    7 tons
  96. United States oil consumption levels in 2004
    7.5 billion barrels
  97. Maximum depth for most groundwater reserves
    750 meters
  98. Amount of earth removed for housing starts in the United States in 1992
    800 million tons
  99. Amount of oil that the Ghawar oil fields will produce in their lifetime
    88 billion barrels
  100. Maximum depth of water found during oil drilling
    9.4 kilometers
  101. Average error between the matched coastlines of South America and Africa
    90 kilometers
  102. equivalent to 56 miles
    90 kilometers
  103. United States energy consumption levels in 2001
    97 quadrillion Btu
  104. Annual damages to roads by landslides in the United States
    1 billion
  105. Annual damages caused by landslides in the United States
    1.5 billion
  106. Cost to the United States annually to import oil annually
    174 billion
  107. Damages caused by 1983 landslide in Thistle, Utah
    200 million
  108. Damages caused by the dam failure in Buffalo Hollow, West Virginia
    50 million
  109. Damages and liabilities from a landslide at Big Rock Mesa in Malibu, California
    92 million
  110. United States’ rank in remaining oil reserves
    10
  111. Atomic number of selenium
    34
  112. Typical angle of repose
    40 °
  113. Average amount of water in igneous rock
    1%
  114. Number of categories of rock textures
    2%
  115. Amount of the world’s oil in the United States amount of world’s total coal used
    2.5%
  116. Average porosity of gravel or sand; amount of the “Okies” who actually came from Oklahoma
    20%
  117. amount the U.S. Geological Survey increased their prediction of remaining oil reserves from 1994 to 2000
    20%
  118. Amount of natural gas used to generate electricity
    21%
  119. Amount of the world’s oil in Saudi Arabia
    22%
  120. percentage coal makes of the United States’ energy consumption
    22%
  121. Amount of fossil fuel consumption made up of natural gas in the United States
    24%
  122. amount of natural gas used in residential settings
    24%
  123. Percent more carbon dioxide released by coal than oil
    25%
  124. Amount of the United State’s energy in 2001 that came from renewable biomaterial
    3%
  125. Increase in worldwide oil production from 2003 to 2004
    3.4%
  126. Amount of United States irrigation water coming from the High Plains aquifer
    30%
  127. amount of the United States’ seafood harvest that comes from swamps along the Mississippi delta
    30%
  128. percent less carbon dioxide produced by natural gas compared to oil
    30%
  129. Number of types of crystal shapes
    4%
  130. Amount of the 20 counties in Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Kansas that experienced severe wind erosion during the Dust Bowl
    40%
  131. efficiency of carbon energy sources
    40%
  132. percent less carbon dioxide produced by natural gas compared to coal
    40%
  133. Maximum amount of water in sedimentary rock
    5%
  134. annual increase in the gap between oil production and consumption in the United States
    5%
  135. amount of world oil demand that could be supplied by the Alberta oil tar sands
    5%
  136. Amount of an isotope remaining after one half-life
    50%
  137. average porosity of clay
    50%
  138. decrease in High Plains aquifer thickness over the last 50 years; percent carbon in peat
    50%
  139. Amount of natural gas directed to industries and commercial projects
    55%
  140. Amount of energy wasted in a carbon system
    60%
  141. Number of major elements
    7%
  142. Percent carbon in lignite; percent more carbon dioxide released by coal than natural gas
    70%
  143. Amount of the United States that suffered from dust clouds during the Dust Bowl
    75%
  144. Amount of the 20 counties in Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Kansas that experienced wind erosion during the Dust Bowl
    80%
  145. Amount of coal lying in the United States, China, and the former Soviet states
    85%
  146. Amount of the United States’ energy in 2001 that came from nonrenewable fossil fuels
    86%
  147. Amount of North America’s arid land that suffers from moderate to severe desertification
    90%
  148. amount of the United States’ energy that comes from carbon sources
    90%
  149. percent carbon in anthracite
    90%
  150. Amount of Earth’s water stored as groundwater
    less than 1%
  151. Global population in 1804
    1 billion
  152. Number of housing starts in the United States in 1992
    1.3 million
  153. Number of people killed when a dam broke loose in Buffalo Hollow, West Virginia
    100
  154. Number of people alive 10,000 years ago; number of coal cars that could be filled with the earth material humans move annually
    100 million
  155. Number of insects and burrowing animals on Earth
    1018
  156. Number of children killed after a mine waste slide in Aberfan, Wales, in 1966
    116
  157. Predicted population in 2050
    12.5 billion
  158. Number of dust storms in 1932
    14
  159. Number of people killed after a mine waste slide in Aberfan, Wales in 1966
    144
  160. Number of wells that pump from the High Plains aquifer
    170,000
  161. Number of categories of rock textures
    2
  162. People alive during 1927
    2 billion
  163. Number of people who die from avalanches in the United States annually; number of counties studied by the Soil Conservation Service during the Dust Bowl
    20
  164. Number of people alive during the Bronze Age
    200 million
  165. Number of people killed in a landslide in Kansu, China in 1920
    200,000
  166. Number of people who die from landslides in the United States annually
    25 to 50
  167. Number of types of rocks; number of geologic eras
    3
  168. Number of young men employed by the Civil Conservation Corps
    3 million
  169. Number of people killed by a wave from the Vaiont reservoir in 1963
    3,000
  170. Number of campers killed from a landslide in Madison Canyon in Montana in 1959
    30
  171. Number of states with commercial oil reserves
    31
  172. Number of types of crystal shapes
    4
  173. People alive during 1974
    4 billion
  174. Number of coal miners that die annually in China
    4,000
  175. Number of dust storms in 1933
    40
  176. Number of planetesimals used in George W. Wetherill’s experiments
    500
  177. Number of large tectonic plates
    6
  178. People alive during 2007
    6.8 billion
  179. Number of people, on average, who die from landslides annually worldwide; number of people killed after an intense storm in Brazil in January 1967
    600
  180. Number of major elements
    7
  181. Predicted population in 2028
    8 billion
  182. Number of jobs created by the Works Progress Administration
    8.5 million
  183. Minimum temperature at which complex hydrocarbons break down into methane
    150 °C
  184. Minimum temperature required for a rock to metamorphose
    250 °C
  185. Temperature at which minerals begin to change in metamorphism
    300 °C
  186. Minimum temperature required to melt most rocks
    700 °C
  187. Temperature below which the crystalline grains of carbonaceous chrondrites solidify
    1500 °C
  188. Temperature in the Earth’s core; equivalent to 9000 °F
    5000 °C
  189. World population reaches 100 million
    10,000
  190. The Jurassic Period begins
    170 million
  191. Dinosaurs appeared on Earth
    228 million
  192. Oldest fossil records from stromatolites
    3 billion
  193. Most recent estimate for the beginnings of planetary formation
    4.56 billion
  194. Most distant estimate for the beginnings of planetary formation
    4.57 billion
  195. Polar wandering paths stop divering between Europe and North America
    50 million
  196. Time when matching rocks formed in Brazil and western Africa
    550 million
  197. Polar wandering paths begin to diverge between Europe and North America
    600 million
  198. Dinosaurs died off
    65 million
  199. Tyrannosaurus rex lived on Earth
    67 million to 65 million

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