Chapter 21: Regional and Global Atmospheric Changes

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banannie
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50373
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Chapter 21: Regional and Global Atmospheric Changes
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2010-11-18 01:53:42
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Chapter Regional Global Atmospheric Changes
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Chapter 21: Regional and Global Atmospheric Changes
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  1. increase in earth’s average temperature over time.
    Global warming
  2. Glacier National Park has about 50 small glaciers, 37 ofwhich are still large enough to be officially classified asglaciers under U.S. Geological Survey requirements.Studies indicate that glacial retreat began about 1850when there were more than 150 glaciers in Glacier NP.These glaciers are direct remnants from an ice age thatended about 11,000 years ago. Because of their relativelylow elevations and inland location, the park’s glaciers arehighly sensitive to ____.
    global climate change.
  3. the additional trapping of heat in theatmosphere by gases that absorb infrared radiation.
    Enhanced green house effect
  4. – gases that absorb infrared radiation (heat)
    Green house gases
  5. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons and tropospheric ozone.
    5 Main Green House Gases:
  6. how to slow down the rate of climate change
    Mitigate
  7. Mitigate
    1. develop alternatives to fossil fuels
    2. control human population
    3. increase energy efficiency in transportation and appliances
    4. planting and maintaining forests to absorb carbon dioxide
    5. Carbon management – ways to convert or capture or convert CO2 during the combustion of fossil fuels and keep it from being released in to the atmosphere.
    How can we “cope” with Global Warming? (mitigate)
  8. making adjustments to deal with climate change.
    Adapt
  9. Adapt

    1. move people inland away from the coast where they are subject to increased sea levels and away from the dangers of storm surges.
    2. construct dikes and levees to coastal land
    3. adapt to shifting agricultural zones.
    • How can we “cope” with this change? (adapt)
  10. a high energy form of radiation that can be lethal athigher levels of exposure.
    Ultraviolet radiation
  11. O3 (three Oxygen atoms)
    • Ozone
  12. Layer of the atmosphereclosest to the earth (to 10 Kilometers (6.2miles))
    Troposphere
  13. Layer of atmosphereimmediately above the troposphere 10Kto 45 K
    Stratosphere
  14. tropospheric ozone is a human–made pollutant in thetroposphere.
    Tropospheric ozone
  15. stratospheric ozone is a naturally produced, protectiveshield in the stratosphere.
    Stratospheric ozone
  16. a high energy form of radiation that can be lethal athigher levels of exposure.
    Ultraviolet radiation
  17. Layer of the atmosphereclosest to the earth (to 10 Kilometers (6.2miles))
    Troposphere
  18. Layer of atmosphereimmediately above the troposphere 10Kto 45 K
    Stratosphere
  19. tropospheric ozone is a human–made pollutant in thetroposphere.
    Tropospheric ozone
  20. stratospheric ozone is a naturally produced, protectiveshield in the stratosphere.
    Stratospheric ozone
  21. **If the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere were not present,the earth could become uninhabitable for most forms of life.**
  22. The ozone molecule that serves as a pollutant at the earth’s surface, is thesame molecule that serves to protect us in the stratosphere.
  23. –thinning of the protective ozone layer
    Stratospheric ozone thinning (ozone depletion)
  24. 1. Increased cataracts (lens of eye becomes opaque)
    2. increased skin cancer
    3. weakened immune system
    4. ecosystem disruption – Antarctic food chain asphytoplankton productivity is declining
    5. mutations in ice fish eggs and larvae
    6. amphibian population decline
    7. possible crop and forest damage - more work needs to be done on plants
    Effects of ozone depletion
  25. CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons) destroy ozone
    • CFC’s = chlorine containing compounds that attack the ozone layer.
    • CFC’s include propellants for aerosol cans, Freon = AC and refrig coolants,some solvents, and foam blowing agents in the manufacture of Styrofoam.
    Causes of Ozone Depletion
  26. acid rain, acid fog, acid snow, acid hail, and acid sleet.
    Acid deposition
  27. – a type of air pollutionthat includes acid that falls from the atmosphere as precipitation or as dry particles. Acid deposition is produced when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mix with water in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid, and nitric acid.
    Acid deposition (acid rain, acid precipitation)
  28. 1. kills aquatic organisms
    2. causes forest decline
    3. corrodes metal products
    4. erodes stone, including famous statuary
    Effects of acid deposition
  29. • The pH Scale is used tomeasure acidity. The scaleranges from 0-14
    7= neutral, <7 = acidic, >7 =basic (alkaline).
  30. The pH scale is a logarithmic scale where a pH of 3 is 10x more acidic than a pH 4 and100x times more acidic that pH of 5.
    • pH of common materials
    • distilled water 7
    • tomato juice 4
    • vinegar 3
    • lemon juice 2
    • normal rain 5-6 = slightly acidicacid rain in NE USA 4-3 and even lower
  31. gradual deterioration and eventual death of trees.
    Forest decline
  32. Air pollution and acid deposition contribute to forest decline.
  33. 1. damage to leaves and bark
    2. reduced photosynthesis
    3. increased susceptibility to other problems
    4. plant death
    5. cell membrane damage
    6. root damage
    7. damage to beneficial root fungi
    8. impairment of water and nutrient uptake
    Forest Decline Effects

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