Biology Unit Test 1.txt

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Biology Unit Test 1.txt
2009-10-25 19:28:19
Metabolic processes

Units 1.1 to 3.2
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  1. What are the specific qualities of a polar molecule?
    There must be a positive and negative end of the molecule sticking out out, so there must be covalent bonds.
  2. Looking at the atomic number for Oxygen, how can you determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons and atomic mass of the element?
    The atomic number of oxygen is 6 so there are 6 protons/electrons. The atomic mass is equal to protons+neutrons. So there are 6 neutrons
  3. What are isomers?
    Isomers have the same molecular formula but a different structure.
  4. What are buffers? Furthermore, what are their functions in living systems?
    Buffers are chemical systems containing a substance that can donate H+ ions when they are required and containing a substance that can remove H+ ions when there are too many in solution. In living things such as cells they are used so that there are no significant changes in pH.
  5. How many electrons are found in a covalent bond?
    There are two electrons in a covalent bond
  6. What elements are found in organic compounds? Inorganic compounds?
    • Organic compounds - Carbons and Hydrogens
    • Inorganic compounds - can have carbon but also contain other minerals and elements, such as oxygen
  7. Hydroxyl
  8. Carboxyl
  9. Amino
  10. Sulfhydryl
  11. Phosphate
  12. Carbonyl
    -COH or -CO-
  13. What are hydrocarbons?
    Hydrocarbons are molecules that consist only of Hydrogen and carbon.
  14. What are the strongest types of bonds found in living things? Enzymes?
    Covalent bonds are the strongest bonds found in living things? Noncovalent bonds are the strongest bonds found in enzymes.
  15. What are the components of proteins (more general than specific micromolecules)?
    Amino Acids are the components of protein. There are 20 proteins
  16. What are monosaccharides? Dissacharides?
    Monosaccharides are the most basic carbohidrates. Dissacharides are two monosaccharides put together
  17. What is the function of glycogen?
    The function of glycogen is the secondary long-term energy storage in an animal cell. It is mainly found in the liver and muscles
  18. What is the process when a water molecule is removed from an organic compound? When a water molecule is added to an organic compound?
    When a water molecule is removed it is called a condesation reaction or a dehydration reaction. It is where a covalent bond is created linking two subunits, this creates one large molecule. When a water molecule is removed it is called a hydrolysis reaction. It is where water is used to break the covalent bond holding two subunits together.
  19. What is a reduction reaction?
    A reduction reaction is where an atom gains one or more electrons
  20. Oxidation reaction?
    Oxidation is the process of losing electrons.
  21. Reducing Agent
    During a redox reaction the substance that gains an electron is reduced and the substance that gives an electron is called a reducing agent.
  22. Oxidizing Agent
    In an oxidizing reaction the substance that loses the electron is oxidized and the substance that takes the electron is called the oxidizing agent.
  23. Neutralization reaction
    • the reaction of an acid and a base to produce water and a salt.
    • HCL + NaOH --> H2O + NaCL
    • acid base Water salt
  24. Hydrolysis Reaction
    a catabolic reaction in which a water molecule is used to break a covalent bond holding subunits together
  25. What is free energy?
    • (Gibbs free energy) energy that can do work.
    • Eg+Eh=Et
    • gravitational potential energy + thermal energy = total energy
  26. What are the major functions of enzymes? How are they needed in living things?
    • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions.
    • Liver enzymes: Substances produced by the liver and released into the blood; these are measured to assess liver function.
    • Restriction enzymes: Bacterial enzymes that cleave DNA at very specific locations. Source: Specialized encyclopedia and dictionaries.
    • Cardiac enzymes:Complex substances capable of speeding up certain biochemical processes in the cardiac muscle. Abnormal levels of these enzymes signal heart attack.
    • Digestive enzymes: Enzymes that speed the process of breaking large food molecules into smaller units that are absorbed into the cells.
    • Metabolic enzymes: Protein-based substances that promote change in bodily cells.
  27. Are enzymes catalysts? If so, how?
    enzymes are protein catalysts that force reactant molecules into the correct orientation and lower the required energy for a collision to produce a reaction.
  28. What is anaerobic respiration?
    A way for an organism that produces energy without oxygen (respiration without oxygen)
  29. What is Aerobic respiration?
    Requires oxygen to create energy (ATP)
  30. What mechanism facilitates the synthesis of ATP at the end of the electron transport chain?
    The enzyme ATP Synthase does this because it allows the protons [H+] to move through it, which powers ADP +Pi to form ATP. It looks like a bulbous structure.
  31. What are the beginning and end products of glycolysis
    Glucose --> 2 pyruvates (pyruvic acid)
  32. What are the beginning and end products of pyruvate oxidation?
    removal of an acetyl group from pyruvate --> acetyl CoA
  33. What are the beginning and end products of the krebs cycle
    citrate --> oxaloacetate
  34. What are the beginning and end products of the electron transport chain?
    NADH dehydrogenase --> cytochrome oxidase complex
  35. What are the beginning and end products of chemiosmosis?
    allowing the flow and materials in and out of the cell
  36. where does glycolysis occur?
    In the cytoplasm.
  37. where does pyruvate oxidation take place?
    In the mitochondrial matrix
  38. Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
    • In eukaryotic cells the citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria.
    • In prokaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the cytoplasm.
  39. Where does the electron transport chain take place?
    The inner mitochondrial membrane.
  40. Where does chemiosmosis take place?
    in the cytoplasm
  41. Which respiration is more effective and efficient, anaerobic or aerobic?
    aerobic by far. anaerobic only makes a net of 2 ATP
  42. What is the stomata (stoma) of a leaf?
    A pore in the epidermis of the leaf. It allows CO2 into the cell and then excretes O that is produced by photosynthesis.
  43. What does substrate mean?
    The reactant that an enzyme acts on when it catalyzes a chemical reaction
  44. What is an active site?
    The location where the substrate binds to an enzyme.
  45. What does induced-fit mean?
    a model of enzyme activity that describes an enzyme as a dynamic protein molecule that changes shape to better accomodate the substrate
  46. What do they mean when they say lock and key?
    It is analogy. The Key is the substrate, the key hole is the active site, the lock is the enzyme.
  47. What are organelles?
    a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function
  48. What is the cytoplasm?
    Is enclosed within the cell membrane and contains all of the organelles
  49. What is enzyme-substrate complex?
    an enzyme with its substrate attached to the active site
  50. What are cofactors?
    nonproteins components, such as dissolved ions, that are needed for some enzymes to function.
  51. What are coenzymes?
    organic nonprotein cofactors that are needed for some enzymes to function
  52. What is chlorophyll?
    a green pigment found in plants
  53. What are chloroplasts?
    Cells that conduct photosynthesis.
  54. What is the epidermis layer?
    The outside layer.
  55. What is the stroma?
    the thick fluid found in between grana, which are stacks of thylakoid disks. Stroma is where the carbohydrate formation reactions occur in the chloroplast of plant cells undergoing photosynthesis.
  56. What are guard cells?
    Large cells outside of the stoma that open and close it
  57. What are the mesophyll layers?
    The photosynthetic cells that form the bulk of a plant leaf
  58. What is translocation?
    the transfer of a fragment of DNA from one site in the genome to another location
  59. What are vascular bundles?
    a system of tubes and cells that transport water and mineral from the roots to the leaf cells and carry carbohydrates from the leaves to other parts of a plant, including the roots
  60. Transpiration
    the loss of water vapour from plant tissues, primarily through stomata
  61. What is energy
    The ability to do work
  62. What is potential energy?
    energy stored by virtue of an object's position within an attractive or repulsive force field
  63. What is kinetic energy?
    energy possessed by moving objects
  64. Why do leaves change colour?
    In the spring and summer, leaves appear green because of the high concentration of chlorophyll. Xanthophyll (yellow), carotenoids (yellow-orange), and anthocyanins (red, violet, and blue) are overwhelmed by the green light reflected by chlorophyll. In autumn, plants stop producing chlorophyll, causing the yellow, red, and brown colours of autumn leaves to show.