Kaplan Studying

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  1. What are the vital signs?
    • temperature
    • pulse
    • respiration
    • blood pressure
    • pain
  2. What is the normal range for oral temperature? What are the deviations for axillary and rectal?
    • Normal: 69.0F-99.9F
    • Axillary: one degree lower
    • Rectal/Tympanic: one degree higher
  3. Where is the apical pulse?
    • at the apex of the heart
    • at the 5th ICS LMCL also known as the mitral area
  4. What is normal respirations?
    • 12-20/minute
    • Brady-slow
    • tachy-fast
  5. What is normal blood pressure?
  6. What is hypertension specifically?
    systolic &/or diastolic BP increased
  7. What is hypotension specifically?
    systolic BP decreased.
  8. What is pulse pressure?
    the difference between SBP and DBP?
  9. What does pulse oximetry monitor?
    oxygen saturation in arterial capillary blood.
  10. What is the normal pulse rate?
    • Normal:60-100bpm
    • brady-slow
    • tachy-fast
  11. What is subjective data?
    what the client tells you
  12. what is objective data?
    factual information obtained through the physical examination.
  13. What are the four types of assessment?
    • initial comprehensive health history
    • interval or follow-up health history
    • focused or problem-oriented assessment
    • emergency health history
  14. What is the History of Present Illness?
    • O - onset
    • P - precipitating factors & progression of problem/concern
    • Q - quality & quantity
    • R - relieving & aggravating factors
    • S - sequelae
    • T - timing
    • U - understanding
  15. What are the techniques of physical assessment?
    • Inspection
    • Ausculatation
    • Percussion
    • Palpation
  16. What are the ABCDs of melanoma?
    • A - asymmetry
    • B - border
    • C - color
    • D - diameter
    • E - elevation
  17. What is carotene?
    • a golden yellow pigment
    • exists in subcutaneous fat and heavily heratinized areas(palms, soles)
    • carotenemia - excessive carotene
  18. What is jaundice?
    • increased bilirubin levels
    • suggests liver disease or excesssive hemolysis of RBCs
    • use natural light
  19. What is oxyhemoglobin?
    • bright red pigment
    • predominates in arteries & capillaries
  20. what is rubor?
    reddening (fever, blushing, alcohol, local inflammation)
  21. what is pallor?
    • decrease in blood flow
    • pale
  22. what is deoxyhemoglobin?
    • darker, less red and somewhat bluer pigment.
    • oxyhemoglobin loses its oxygen to tissues
    • cyanosis-increase concentration due to hypoxia.
  23. what is turgor and does does it check for?
    pinch the skin above the sternoclavicular junction to assess the skin's moisture level. If skin "tents", patient lacks moisture.
  24. What is striae?
    • silver or pink strech marks
    • if purple, possible Cushing's syndrome
  25. what is vitiligo?
    • it's a pigmentation disorder with an aqcuired localized loss of melanocytes
    • chalk-white, nonscaling, macular patches.
  26. What are normal variations of the skin?
    • moles (pigmented nevi)
    • freckles (macules)
    • birthmarks
  27. Macules and patches are what?
    • primary skin lesions that are flat, nonpalpable, and circumscribed.
    • examples of macules are: freckles & measles
    • an example of a patch is vitiligo or a stage I pressure ulcer
  28. What are papules?
    • less than 0.5cm elevated, circumscribed, palpable, solid.
    • examples are moles and warts
  29. What is plague?
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Kaplan Studying
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