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What are the vital signs?
- blood pressure
What is the normal range for oral temperature? What are the deviations for axillary and rectal?
- Normal: 69.0F-99.9F
- Axillary: one degree lower
- Rectal/Tympanic: one degree higher
Where is the apical pulse?
- at the apex of the heart
- at the 5th ICS LMCL also known as the mitral area
What is normal respirations?
What is normal blood pressure?
What is hypertension specifically?
systolic &/or diastolic BP increased
What is hypotension specifically?
systolic BP decreased.
What is pulse pressure?
the difference between SBP and DBP?
What does pulse oximetry monitor?
oxygen saturation in arterial capillary blood.
What is the normal pulse rate?
What is subjective data?
what the client tells you
what is objective data?
factual information obtained through the physical examination.
What are the four types of assessment?
- initial comprehensive health history
- interval or follow-up health history
- focused or problem-oriented assessment
- emergency health history
What is the History of Present Illness?
- O - onset
- P - precipitating factors & progression of problem/concern
- Q - quality & quantity
- R - relieving & aggravating factors
- S - sequelae
- T - timing
- U - understanding
What are the techniques of physical assessment?
What are the ABCDs of melanoma?
- A - asymmetry
- B - border
- C - color
- D - diameter
- E - elevation
What is carotene?
- a golden yellow pigment
- exists in subcutaneous fat and heavily heratinized areas(palms, soles)
- carotenemia - excessive carotene
What is jaundice?
- increased bilirubin levels
- suggests liver disease or excesssive hemolysis of RBCs
- use natural light
What is oxyhemoglobin?
- bright red pigment
- predominates in arteries & capillaries
what is rubor?
reddening (fever, blushing, alcohol, local inflammation)
what is pallor?
- decrease in blood flow
what is deoxyhemoglobin?
- darker, less red and somewhat bluer pigment.
- oxyhemoglobin loses its oxygen to tissues
- cyanosis-increase concentration due to hypoxia.
what is turgor and does does it check for?
pinch the skin above the sternoclavicular junction to assess the skin's moisture level. If skin "tents", patient lacks moisture.
What is striae?
- silver or pink strech marks
- if purple, possible Cushing's syndrome
what is vitiligo?
- it's a pigmentation disorder with an aqcuired localized loss of melanocytes
- chalk-white, nonscaling, macular patches.
What are normal variations of the skin?
- moles (pigmented nevi)
- freckles (macules)
Macules and patches are what?
- primary skin lesions that are flat, nonpalpable, and circumscribed.
- examples of macules are: freckles & measles
- an example of a patch is vitiligo or a stage I pressure ulcer
What are papules?
- less than 0.5cm elevated, circumscribed, palpable, solid.
- examples are moles and warts