A&PII Chapter 26 Urinary System

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A&PII Chapter 26 Urinary System
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2010-11-18 22:47:40
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MGCCC Urinary System
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A&PII Chapter 26 Urinary System
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  1. What is the primary function of the urinary system?
    to help maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of the blood.
  2. What is NOT the primary function of the urinary system?
    to rid the body of wastes
  3. Outer portion of kidney?
    Cortex
  4. What are the renal columns formed by?
    the renal cortex dipping between the pyramids
  5. What arches above the pyramids and dips between them to form renal columns?
    the renal cortex
  6. What part of the kidney is the darker than the cortex and consists of the the renal pyramids?
    the medulla
  7. 12 striated cone shaped masses which form the medulla of the kidney
    renal pyramids or medullar pyramids
  8. another name for the renal pyramids
    medullar pyramids
  9. Where are the bases of the pyramids directed towards?
    the cortex
  10. Where are the apices of the pyramids pointed toward?
    the center of the kidney
  11. the functional unit of the kidney?
    nephron
  12. 3 functions the nephron performs
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
    • secretion
  13. nephron consists of what 2 portions?
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubule
  14. renal corpuscle
    part of nephron where fluid is filtered
  15. renal tubule
    part of nephron into which filtered fluid passes
  16. renal tubule begins as an epithelial cup known as...
    Bowman's capsule or Glomerular capsule
  17. capillary network contained within Bowman's capsule
    glomerulus
  18. 3 layers of the glomerular capillary of the glomerulus
    • 1. Endothelium (innermost layer)
    • 2. Basement membran (middle layer)
    • 3. Epithelium (outermost layer)
  19. contains fenestrations (very small pores) that allow water and solutes to exit while retaining large molecules and formed elements of the blood
    endothelium (inner layer) of the glomerular capillary in the bowman's capsule
  20. consists of crisscross of fibrils which act as a filter
    basement membrane of the glomerular capillary in the Bowman's capsule
  21. strangely shaped epithelium arranged similar to the plastic spine on a notebook
    epithelium (outermost layer) of the glomerular capillary in the Bowman's capsule
  22. the long portion of that forms the backbone on the outside of the glomerular capillary of the glomerulus
    podocyte
  23. the short rung-like "feet" that run perpendicular to the podocyte in the glomerular capillary of the glomarulus
    • pedicels
    • between the pedicels are filtration slits
  24. after leaving the renal corpuscle the renal tubule becomes the...
    proximal convoluted tubule
  25. order of flow of fluid through the renal system
    • Bowman's capsule
    • renal tubule
    • proximal convoluted tubule (doesn't extend beyond cortex)
    • descending loop of Henle
    • loop of Henle
    • ascending loop of Henle (going back toward cortex)
    • distal convoluted tubule (back in cortex)
    • collecting duct (pass through renal pyramids)
    • renal papillae
    • minor calyces
    • major calyces
    • renal pelvis
    • ureter
    • bladder
    • urethra
  26. renal tubule cells are the JGA which monitor salt concentration of the fluid in the ascending loop of Henle tubule are called...
    macula densa
  27. the juxtaglomerular cells secrete _______ which influences constriction of the glomerular arterioles to help regulate___________ ____________ _______
    • renin
    • kidney filtration rate
  28. the right and left renal arteries transport....
    about 1/4 of total cardiac output to the kidneys
  29. division of arteries in the kidney
    • renal arteries
    • several short segmental arteries
    • interlobar arteries (pass through renal columns)
    • arcurate arteries (arch over renal pyramid bases)
    • interlobular arteries (branch from arcurate arteries)
    • enter parenchyma
  30. Unfiltered blood enters the capillary network of the glomerulus through a large diameter.....
    afferent glomerular arteriole
  31. Filtered blood leaves the glomerulus through a smaller diameter...
    efferent glomerular arteriole
  32. the forcing of fluids and dissolved substances through a membrane by pressure
    glomerular filtration
  33. When the blood enters the glomerulus, the pressure forces water and dissolved components through the endothelial pores of the capillaries, through the basement membrane, and finally through the pedicel filtration slits. The resulting fluid is called....
    filtrate
  34. What is the amount of plasma filtered by both kidneys each minute called?

    What is it in a normal adult?
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

    125 ml per minute
  35. The movement of certain components of the filtrate back into the blood along the course of the renal tubule
    tubular reaborption
  36. What percentage of filtrate is reabsorbed through tubular reabsorption?
    99%
  37. Where does most tubular reabsorption occur?
    the proximal convoluted tubule
  38. 2 principle processes of tubular reabsorption
    • obligatory water reabsorption (90%)
    • facultative water reabsorption (10%)
  39. obligatory water reabsorption is driven by...
    • sodium transport
    • (water follows sodium ion back into the blood in the proximal convoluted tubule by osmosis)
  40. Facilitative water reabsorption is driven by __________ and occurs in the _________ ______ __ ________.
    • hormones (ADH & Renin-angiotensin system)
    • descending loop of Henle
  41. Renin-angiotensin system cascade
    • renin (produced by juxtaglomerular cells of the JGA when the blood pressure drops or when blood sodium is low)
    • angiotensinogen (precursor produced in liver)
    • angiotensin I
    • lungs (I is changed to II in presence of plasma cells)
    • angiotensin II
    • alterosterone (secreted by adrenal cortex)
    • sodium retention by kidneys
    • bp increases
  42. internal urethral sphincter is composed of
    involuntary mucle
  43. external urethral spinter
    • voluntary muscle
    • skeletal muscle allows for voluntary control of micturition (urination)
  44. the lack of control over mictrition
    urinary incontinence
  45. inability to urinate
    urinary retention
  46. urine is...
    the byproduct of the kidneys' activities
  47. normal urine contains...
    it should be...
    • 95% water
    • 5% solutes

    sterile
  48. mictrition
    urination
  49. condition associated with abnormally high concentrations of uric acid
    • gout
    • crystals deposit in joints, kidneys, and soft tissues
  50. inflammation of the glomeruli from destructive toxins given off by streptococci bacteria, usually untreated pharyngitis
    Glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease)
  51. infection anywhere in the urinary system
    UTI (urinary tract infection)
  52. UTI is characterized by...
    • large numbers of bacteria in urine
    • dysuria
    • frequency
  53. dysuria
    pain with urination
  54. cystitis
    • bladder infection
    • indicated by pain over the symphysis pubus
  55. back and flack pain suggests
    pyelonephritis (kidney infection)
  56. Renal calculi
    • kidney stones
    • crystals of salts concentrate and solidify
    • anywhere in urinary tract, usually in calyces and pelvis
  57. Lithotripsy
    generation of high intensity sound waves that pulverize the renal calculi (kidney stones)
  58. Nephrons form urine by 3 principle processes...
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion

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