MGCCC Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, etc

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MGCCC Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, etc
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2010-11-18 09:33:03
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MGCCC Chapter Fluid Electrolyte etc Beau
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A & P II Chapter 27
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  1. What is body fluid?
    Water and it's dissolved substances.
  2. How much of the bodys weight does body fluid comprise?
    60%
  3. How much of the body's fluid is located in the cells? What is it called?
    • 2/3
    • Intracellular fluid
  4. How much of the body's fluid is extracellular fluid.
    1/3
  5. Interstitial fluid
    Fluid between the cells- comprises close to 80% of the extracellular fluid.
  6. Types of interstitial fluid?
    • Plasma & Lymph- 20% of extracellular fluids
    • Cerebrospinal
    • Gastrointestinal
    • synovial
    • Fluid in the eyes- Aqueous humor $ Vitreous body
    • Fluid in ear- Endo/Peri lymph
    • Pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal fluids
    • Glomerular filtrate of the kidneys
  7. What is the primary way that water moves in and out of the fluid compartments?
    Osmosis
  8. What is a major determinant of fluid balance?
    Concentration of solutes in fluids.
  9. Osmotically normal saline is a solution with a NaCl concentration compatible with _______. Normal saline is ___%NaCl
    • body fluids
    • 0.9%
  10. Osmotically normal saline AKA
    Physiological isotonic
  11. Metabolic water
    Water produced as a byproduct of metabolism. About 200ml a day.
  12. 2 Sources of metabolic water
    • Dehydration synthesis
    • Cellular respiration
  13. Dehydration synthesis
    produced anabolically; example is amino acids in the synthesis of protein.
  14. Cellular respiration
    produced cataboliclly; example is the formation of water as a byproduct of ATP energy generation in the Electron transport chain
  15. Nonelectrolytes
    compounds with covalent bonds and include organic compounds such as glucose, proteins, and fats that do not conduct electricity.
  16. Electrolytes
    Chemicals in the body that dissociate into cations and anions. They have atleast 1 ionic bond which allows them to conduct electricity. Examples; acids, bases, and salts.
  17. Cation
    Positive ion
  18. Anion
    Negative ion
  19. What is electrolyte concentration expressed in?
    Milliequivalents per liter (mEq/l)
  20. What is the most abundant extracellular cation?
    Sodium (Na)
  21. Hyponatremia
    lower than normal blood sodium from excessive sweating, burns, or diuretic meds.
  22. Hypernatremia
    higher than normal blood sodium from water loss or sodium gain.
  23. What is the most abundant exracellular anion?
    Chloride (Cl)
  24. Hypochloremia
    • low level of chloride in blood
    • Results from excessive vomiting, dehydration, & diuretics.
  25. What is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?
    Potassium (K)- its involved in muscle contraction and nerve impulse stimulation.
  26. Hypokalemia
    • Lower than normal potassium.
    • Results from excessive vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, & diuretics.
  27. Hyperkalemia
    • higher than normal potassium.
    • Usually caused by renal failure
  28. What is the most abundant cation in bones and teeth?
    Calcium(Ca)
  29. Hypocalcemia
    low level of calcium which may result from a vitamin D deficiency or a symptom of hypoparathyroidism.

    ie-rickets and tetany
  30. Hypercalcemia
    • abnormally high level of calcium.
    • May be from excessive parathyroid hormone, cancer, or too much vitamin D.
  31. Bicarbonate ions
    Second most prevalent extracellular anions behind Cl
  32. Movement of fluids between the plasma and interstitial compartments occurs over
    Capillary membranes
  33. Fluid moves out of the plasma and into the interstitial fluid by____.
    Filtration
  34. Under normal conditions there is a state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of the capillary between filtered, absorbed and lymphatic pickup. This equilibrium is known as?
    Starlings law of the capillaries.
  35. The movement of fluids between the interstitial and intracellular compartments accurs
    Across the cell membrane
  36. Normal pH of extracellular fluid?
    7.35-7.45
  37. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by?
    Buffer systems
  38. Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
    • important in regulating blood pH. It uses the HCO3 ion.
    • In the prescence of a strong base the bicarbonate ion captures the cation to form a weak base
  39. Phosphate buffer system
    Like carbonic acid system only it functions in the kidneys
  40. The pH of the body fluids may be adjusted by a change in the
    Rate and depth of respiration
  41. Where are the respiratory centers?
    Medulla oblongata of the brain
  42. Acidosis
    pH of the blood ranges from 7.35-6.80 or lower
  43. Alkalosis
    Blood pH of 7.45-8.00 or higher
  44. Acidosis and alkalosis may be either
    Respiratory or metabolic
  45. Respiratory relates to
    the partial pressure of Carbon dioxide in the blood
  46. A high partial pressure of CO2 result in
    respiratory acidosis and decreases pH
  47. How do you compensate for respiratory acidosis?
    increase oxygen
  48. Low CO2 levels result in
    Respiratory alkalosis and increases pH
  49. How do you compensate for respiratory alkalosis?
    Decrease oxygen (bag breathing)

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