MGCCC Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, etc
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MGCCC Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, etc
MGCCC Chapter Fluid Electrolyte etc Beau
A & P II Chapter 27
What is body fluid?
Water and it's dissolved substances.
How much of the bodys weight does body fluid comprise?
How much of the body's fluid is located in the cells? What is it called?
How much of the body's fluid is extracellular fluid.
Fluid between the cells- comprises close to 80% of the extracellular fluid.
Types of interstitial fluid?
Plasma & Lymph- 20% of extracellular fluids
Fluid in the eyes- Aqueous humor $ Vitreous body
Fluid in ear- Endo/Peri lymph
Pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal fluids
Glomerular filtrate of the kidneys
What is the primary way that water moves in and out of the fluid compartments?
What is a major determinant of fluid balance?
Concentration of solutes in fluids.
Osmotically normal saline is a solution with a NaCl concentration compatible with _______. Normal saline is ___%NaCl
Osmotically normal saline AKA
Water produced as a byproduct of metabolism. About 200ml a day.
2 Sources of metabolic water
produced anabolically; example is amino acids in the synthesis of protein.
produced cataboliclly; example is the formation of water as a byproduct of ATP energy generation in the Electron transport chain
compounds with covalent bonds and include organic compounds such as glucose, proteins, and fats that do not conduct electricity.
Chemicals in the body that dissociate into cations and anions. They have atleast 1 ionic bond which allows them to conduct electricity. Examples; acids, bases, and salts.
What is electrolyte concentration expressed in?
Milliequivalents per liter (mEq/l)
What is the most abundant extracellular cation?
lower than normal blood sodium from excessive sweating, burns, or diuretic meds.
higher than normal blood sodium from water loss or sodium gain.
What is the most abundant exracellular anion?
low level of chloride in blood
Results from excessive vomiting, dehydration, & diuretics.
What is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?
Potassium (K)- its involved in muscle contraction and nerve impulse stimulation.
Lower than normal potassium.
Results from excessive vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, & diuretics.
higher than normal potassium.
Usually caused by renal failure
What is the most abundant cation in bones and teeth?
low level of calcium which may result from a vitamin D deficiency or a symptom of hypoparathyroidism.
ie-rickets and tetany
abnormally high level of calcium.
May be from excessive parathyroid hormone, cancer, or too much vitamin D.
Second most prevalent extracellular anions behind Cl
Movement of fluids between the plasma and interstitial compartments occurs over
Fluid moves out of the plasma and into the interstitial fluid by____.
Under normal conditions there is a state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of the capillary between filtered, absorbed and lymphatic pickup. This equilibrium is known as?
Starlings law of the capillaries.
The movement of fluids between the interstitial and intracellular compartments accurs
Across the cell membrane
Normal pH of extracellular fluid?
Homeostasis of pH is maintained by?
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
important in regulating blood pH. It uses the HCO3 ion.
In the prescence of a strong base the bicarbonate ion captures the cation to form a weak base
Phosphate buffer system
Like carbonic acid system only it functions in the kidneys
The pH of the body fluids may be adjusted by a change in the
Rate and depth of respiration
Where are the respiratory centers?
Medulla oblongata of the brain
pH of the blood ranges from 7.35-6.80 or lower
Blood pH of 7.45-8.00 or higher
Acidosis and alkalosis may be either
Respiratory or metabolic
Respiratory relates to
the partial pressure of Carbon dioxide in the blood
A high partial pressure of CO2 result in
respiratory acidosis and decreases pH
How do you compensate for respiratory acidosis?
Low CO2 levels result in
Respiratory alkalosis and increases pH
How do you compensate for respiratory alkalosis?
Decrease oxygen (bag breathing)