BVMS1

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Author:
mkusiak
ID:
50419
Filename:
BVMS1
Updated:
2010-11-18 12:52:02
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Anatomy
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Description:
Comparative (fore and hind limb)
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  1. Importance knowing comparative anatomy
    • lameness = production loss
    • abbatoir= meat inspection
    • look for growth plates
    • horse vs cow
    • sheep vs pig
    • (horse vs pony)
  2. Scapula (Dog)
    Dog: acromion process (no tuber), supraglenoid tubercle (SGT) is part of glenoid cavity
  3. Scapula (horse)
    • horse: narrow supraspinous fossa, no acromion process
    • small tuber top of spine
    • SGT separate from glenoid cavity
  4. Scapula (cow)
    • broad dorsal border
    • acromion process
    • small tuber along spine
  5. Scapula (pig)
    • rounded cranial margin
    • poorly defined acromion
    • prominent tuber
  6. Humerus (dog)
    • single greater tubercle
    • supratrochlear foramen
  7. Humerous (horse)
    • greater tubercle (cranial and caudal parts, level w/ humeral head)
    • lesser tubercle (similar size)
    • intermediate tubercle (double intertubercular groove)
    • no supratrochlear foramen
  8. Humerus (cow)
    • greater tubercle (cranial and caudal parts, much higher level than humeral head, pointed shape
    • single intertubercular groove
    • "flattened thumb print"
    • no suprotrochlear foramen
  9. Humerus (pig)
    • greater tubercle (cranial and caudal parts, higher than humeral head, rounded shape, almost encloses intertubercular groove)
    • single intertubercular groove
    • no supratrochlear foramen (like dog)
    • no flattened thumb print (like cow)
  10. Radius and Ulna (cat/dog)
    • 2 seperate complete bones
    • rotation possible
  11. Radius and ulna (horse)
    • proximal ulna present and fused to radius
    • body of ulna absent
    • distal ulna present and fused to radius (lateral styloid process)
    • Radius: medial styloid process
    • (no rotaion possible)
  12. Radius and ulna (ruminant)
    • 2 complete bones
    • fuse as animal ages
    • no rotation
  13. Radius and ulna (pig)
    • 2 complete separate bones
    • ulna same diameter as radius
    • no interosseous space
    • no rotation
  14. Carpus (dog/cat)
    • radial and intermediate fused
    • distal row all present
  15. Carpus (horse)
    • all present
    • except variable 1st CB
  16. Carpus (pig)
    all present
  17. Carpus (ruminant)
    • proximal row all present
    • distal row: 1st CB absent
    • 2nd and 3rd fused
  18. Carpal canal
    • dog and cat: only DDFT passes through
    • Horse: both DDFT & SDFT
    • ruminant and pig: DDFT and HALF SDFT (b/c SDFT splits)
  19. Manus (dog)
    • digitigrade
    • weightbears on digit (3 phalanges)
    • 2nd-5th weight bearing
    • 1st digit vestigial
  20. Manus (horse)
    • unguligrade (hoof)
    • perissodactyla (uneven number)
    • weightbears distal phalanx
    • 3rd MC and digit only
    • MC 2 and 4 vestigial
    • all the rest are absent
  21. Manus (ruminants)
    • Cattle, sheep, deer, goats, etc
    • unguligrade (hoof)
    • artyrodactyla (even number)
    • weightbear on distal phalanx
    • 3rd and 4th digits
    • MC 3 & 4:
    • separate in foetus
    • fuse in uterus
    • 2 medullary cavities
    • axial boney septum
    • proximal end- 1 articular surface
    • distal end- 2 articular surfaces
    • (4 centres of ossification)
    • MC 1 and 2 absent
    • MC 5 vestigial spur
  22. Digits (cow)
    • digits 3 &4 weight bearingg
    • 2 & 5 vestigial = dew claws (little hooves palmar aspect MCP joint
    • Digit 1 absent
    • joints: MCP joints x 2
    • (2 x pairs proximal sesamoids, no dorsal sesamoid)
    • PIP joint x 2
    • DIP joint x 2
    • 2 x distal sesamoid bones
  23. MCP joint support (ruminent)
    • medial and lateral collateral ligaments (axial collateral ligaments- fused proximally)
    • inter-sesamoidean ligaments (2 x proximal scuta)
    • interdigital intersesamoidean ligament
    • distal sesamoidean ligaments: (short, cruciate- no oblique and straight)
    • interdigital phalaneal sesamoidean ligament
    • axial aspect sesamoid- opposite PP
    • helps hold PPs together
    • suspensory ligament
  24. Digits (large ruminents)
    large weight pushes digits apart, require strong attachments
  25. digits (small ruminents)
    • less weight so less firmly attached
    • accomodate tough ground
    • proximal interdigital ligament (between PPs, no present in small ruminants)
    • distal interdigital ligament ( between MPs, cross over, present in small and large)
  26. Manus- soft tissue structures
    • similar arrangement to horse (2 brances)
    • extensor tendons
    • flexor tendons
    • suspensory ligament (wraps around DDFT, fuses w/ SDFT, acts like check ligament of SDFT)
  27. Pig
    • artyodactyla = even number
    • bony elements for 4 digits
    • 3rd and 4th weightbear
    • 2 & 5th vestigial (don't hit the ground)
    • Ligaments (too numerous to contemplate- remember basic principles)
  28. Clinical considerations
    • forelimb lameness less common than hindlimb
    • digital amputation possible
  29. Pelvis (wing of ilium)
    • Dog/pig: vertical orientation, flat or convex cranial margin
    • Horse/ruminants: horizontal orientation, concave cranial margin
  30. Pelvis (tuber ischium)
    • cow: trifid (3 way projection)
    • sheep: less distinct but still trifid
  31. Palpable featues of ruminant pelvis
    • gluteal muscles are poorly developed
    • hind limb retractor muscles (no extra head from lumbosacral fascia in cow)
    • cows have an angular ump if not fat
    • Tuber sacral (sacroiliac joint)
    • tuber coxae
    • tuber ischium
    • ruminants= all palpabale
    • (horses are variable)
  32. Sacroiliac joint
    • Horse, cow and goat: 5 fused vertebrae
    • cow: dorsal spinous process of sacrum fuse as ages
    • horse: dorsal spnous processes are NOT fused/remain seperate
    • pig/sheep:= 4 fused
    • dog= 3 fused
    • ** all species: articular surface ilium at S1 (fibrous joint-fused, minimal movement, except at parturation)
  33. Sacrotuberous ligament
    • dog: fibrous band, S3 to tuber ischium
    • cat: absent
    • cow/horse: fibrous SHEET, sacrum to dorsal aspect ilium/ischium, forms lateral wall of pelvic cavity
    • function: protection
    • passage of nerves: greater ishiatic notch, lower ischiatic notch
  34. Parturition
    • RELAXIN
    • softens: pelvic ligaments, sacroiliac joint, broad ligament
    • palpable changes
    • pelvic inlet tips ventrally: increases aperture, improved angle
  35. obturator nerve
    • passes through obturator forament
    • short route to medial thigh (adductor muscles)
    • damage at parturition:
    • probelsm in COWS: oversized calves, stand up hind end first, "down cow"
    • not a problem in HORSES: no oversized foals (uterus will control growth), stand up front end first
  36. Hip
    • cow/horse/pig: same main features as dog, ligament of head of femur
    • Horse: accessory ligament (from prepubic tendon)
    • Cow: acetabulum has divided articular surface
  37. Femur
    • sheep/pig/dog: trochlear ridges equal size
    • cow: medial trochlear ridge larger than lateral, no tubercle, 3 patellar ligaments, no patellar locking mechanism, no fabellae or popliteal sesamoids
  38. Tibia and fibula
    • pig: fibula complete and seperate from tibia
    • ruminants: remnant of fibula proximally (fused, spur), separate remnant distally (doesn't fuse, joined to tibis by ligament)
    • horse: proximal half of fibula fused to tibia, distal fragment also fused to tibia
  39. Tarsus
    • Pig: same as dog (all sepeerate)
    • cow: central and 4 fused, 2 & 3 fused, Talus (troclea straight, one at either end, rotation possible at proximal intertarsal joint= lateral 'cow' kick)
    • Horse: 1 & 2 fused
  40. clinical significance
    • Reciprocal apparatus: correcting breech calves/foals (must bend both joints)
    • trauma
    • spastic paresis: possibly inherited, contraction of gastrocnemius, section of tibial N/gastrocnemius attachments
    • capped hock/bursitis
  41. Hoof Relevance
    • horses: shoeing, corrective/therapeutic shoeing, lameness
    • 90% equine lameness arises in the foot
    • NO foot, NO horse!
    • ruminants: welfare, production
  42. Horse Hoof external features
    • walls- weight bearing
    • sole- shouldn't contact ground
    • white line- found between sole and wall
    • angles of heel
    • bars of heel
    • bulbs of heel
    • frog: anticoncussive, contral sulcus, collateral sulci
    • Wall: weight bearing (toe, quarters, heel)
    • coronary band: produces hoof wall, marks boundary between skin and hoof
    • periople: round coronary region, produces waterproof layer ( extens 2/3 way down hoof, prevents evaportation)
  43. Horse hoof contents
    • distal phalanx
    • middle phalanx (distal end)
    • DIP joint
    • navicular bone
    • DDFT
    • Navicular burse
    • digital cushion: deep to frog, elastic tissue, blood vessels, fat
  44. Functions of Digital cushion in Horse
    • shock absorption
    • protection: DDFT, distal phalanx, navicular burse, navicular bone
  45. Clinical significance of foot pad (horse)
    • penetration injuries: significance depends on: location/depth
    • abcess formation/pododermatitis/pus in the foot= significant pain, palpable digital pulses
    • must dig!
    • may need to apply poultice to soften horn
  46. Hoof contents (lateral/ungual cartilages)
    • cartilage plates
    • palmar processes DP
    • medial and lateral
    • shock absorption
    • mineralize as age
  47. Hoof production (horse)
    • dermis (corium): covers DP and digital cushion
    • blood and nerve supply
    • sensitive
    • supplies germinative layer: produces epidermis, active in 2 areas only (coronary band and solar surface)
  48. Hoof production (coronary band)
    • dermis formed into conical shaped papillae
    • produce epidermis in form of tubes of keratin
    • extend distally towards ground
    • grow 5-6mm/ 1/4 inch per month
    • gaps filled by intertubular horn
    • form hoof wall
    • weightbearing surface
  49. Hoof production (dermis/laminae)
    • dermis fused to DP
    • surface of dermis forms vertical ridges= laminae (primary/secondary=microscope)
    • sensitive
  50. Hoof production (hoof wall)
    • epidermal horn tubes glide distally
    • internal surface intergitates with dermal laminae
    • forms corresponding primary and secondary laminae (epidermal/insensitive laminae)
    • (no nerve/blood supply)
  51. Hoof production (interdigitation/white line)
    • interdigitation= white line
    • prevents separation of epidermis from DP
    • transfers weight from hoof wall to DP
  52. Hoof production (solar surface)
    • = active germinative layer
    • sole: keratinised flakes
    • frog: incomplete keratinisation, soft/elastic
  53. weight bearing
    • frog contacts ground first
    • forces passes to: digital cushion (blood forced back up to leg), lateral cartilages
    • hoof wall contacts ground: weight transfered to distal phalanx then via laminae to hoof wall
  54. Linical considerations (horse hoof)
    • laminitis: numerous causes
    • altered blood flow
    • fluid accumulation between dermal and epidermal laminae
    • significan pain
    • DP rotation
    • DP sinks
    • slipper toe
    • frog supports
  55. farrier (foot trimming/shoeing)
    • foot trimming: horn grows continuously
    • shoeing: protect weight bearing wall, shape doesn't restrict heel, therapeutic shoes (might restrict)
  56. farrier (nails)
    • insensitive laminae
    • outwith white line (sound)
    • sledge tipped nails
    • tips clipped and flattened= clenches
    • must "raise clenches' before can remove shoe!
  57. Hoof shape (horse)
    • front (weightbearing): broad rounded 1 toe clip
    • back (propusion): narrow, pointed, 2 toe clips
    • medial wall: more upright, straighter, usually 3 nails
    • lateral wall: more angled, rounded, usually 4 nails
  58. Ruminant hoofs
    • cloven hoof
    • medial and lateral claws
    • interdigital cleft
    • sole, heel (no frog)
    • wall: lateral (concave)- cont. with heel
    • medial (vertical)- stops at parapedal groove, transition hard-soft horn, prone to damage
    • white line
  59. ruminant hoof growth
    • coronary band
    • only part of dermis covered by laminae
    • sensitive laminae
    • insensitive laminae
    • primary only
    • no secondary
  60. Ruminant hoof external features
    • shock absorption:
    • bulbous heels
    • digital cushion (deep)
    • digits splay: supported by interdigital ligaments
    • no lateral cartilages
    • no frog
  61. Clinical considerations (ruminant hoof)
    • horn overgrowth:
    • soft ground
    • FL= inner claw
    • HL=outer claw
    • solar ulcers: especially parapedal groove, secondary infections (can track up DDFT sheath)
    • interdigital dermatitis
    • white line disease
    • laminitis
  62. Sheep
    • same as cattle
    • skin gland proximal to interdigital cleft
    • overgrowth a problem- need pared
  63. pig feet
    • similar to ruminants
    • no frog
    • no lateral cartilages

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