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form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space.
distance between 2 identical parts of a wave
how fast wave oscillates up and down
includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation
EM radiation (RMIVUXG)
- -radio (lowest energy)
- -gamma (highest) (cosmic rays)
- less energy, longer freq.
- more energy, shorter freq.
- energy increases with increasing frequency
the quantum concept; light comes from little bundles of energy called quantum
minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
photoelectric effect; proposed that EM radiation has both wavelike and particle like natures
electrons that are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
a particle of EM radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
states that an electron must be in an energy level, not in-between
- -came up with 7 energy levels
- -each successive energy level gets closer together.
de Broglie relation
predicts all moving particles have wave-like characteristics
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to make a measurement on an object without disturbing the object in some way, especially if the object is very small.
The aufbau principle
electrons start at lowest possible energy level
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