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the cervical vertebra include ____ (C1) and ___(C2)
describe the body of the cervical vertebra
smaller and wider side to side than from anterior to posterior
What are the 5 parts of cervical vertebra?
body, vertebral foramen, transverse process, articular process, spinous process
concave articular facets of the atlas create _____ joints with condyles of the occipital bone (yes nodding motion)
flat inferior facets meet with axis to form lateral ______ joints (no rotational motion)
what are few characteristics of atlas?
- -ring like
- -no spinous process
- -no body
what is the purpose of the dens process of the axis?
provides pivot around which atlas turns (no)
what is the shape of the body of thoracic vertebra?
transverse process of thoracic vertebrae get shorter from T___ to T___
T__ to T__ have costal facets for articulation with tubercle of ribs in thoracic vertebra
which way does the superior and inferior articular process of thoracic vertebrae face?
- superior face posteriorly
- inferior faces anteriorly
characteristics of the body of lumbar vertebrae
- large and heavy
- kidney shaped from above
- designed to distribute weight
which vertebrae is circular and smaller than C and L regions?
vertebral foramen for lumbar vertebrae is longer than ____ and smaller than ____
what is the purpose of intervertebral discs?
- -strong attachment between bodies
- permit movement
- absorb and distribute shock
what are the two main parts of the intervertebral discs?
- 1. anulus fibrosus (outer ring)
- 2. nucleus pulpous (central core)
what is the anulus fibrosus?
ring of concentric layers (lamellae)of fibrocartilage
purpose of anulus fibrosus
allow shock absorption in many directions
what is the purpose of nucleus pulposus?
absorbs and distributes shock/ pressure
between uncinate process of C3-C6 vertebrae
what are the ligaments of the vertebrae?
- anterior longitudinal ligament
- posterior longitudinal ligament
anterior longitudinal ligament
- extends from sacrum to C1
- maintain stability and limit extension
Posterior longitudinal ligament
- weaker than anterior
- attached mainly to IV discs
- -synovial joints
- planar joints between inferior and superior articular process of adjacent vertebra
- innervated by posterior rami
what are the movements of the vertebral column?
flexion, extension, lateral flexion , rotation
motion of vertebral column is limited by:
- IV disc thickness
- shape facet joints
- resistance muscles and ligaments
- attachment to rib cage
which region in the column is flexion the greatest in?
which region in the column is extension the greatest in?
anterior rami from this area form brachial plexus
cervical enlargement (C4-T1)
anterior rami from this area form lumbosacral plexus
lumbar enlargement (L1-S3)
- o: nuchal ligament and spinous process of C7-T3
- i :capitis-mastoid process and occipital bone
- cervicis:transverse process C1-C3
- in: posterior rami
- a:unilaterally-laterally flex neck
- bilaterally-extend neck
what are the three muscles in intermediate layer erector spinae from lateral to medial