Psy2012 Test 4

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Psy2012 Test 4
2010-11-19 14:22:21
Psy2012 Test

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  1. Researchers Homes and Rahe developed the ________ to measure stress by ranking different life events from most to least stressful and assigining a point value to each event.
    Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
  2. Richard Lazzarus believes that the little stressors, which he calls _______, cause more stress than major life events do.
  3. According to Lazarus, ________, or positive experiences in life, may nuetralize the effects of many hassles.
  4. However, for some, these events lead to ________, a prolonged and severe stress reaction to a catastrophic event.
    posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  5. Many survivors of war or catastrophic events experience ________ because they lived while others died; some feel that perhaps they could have done more to save others.
    survivor guilt
  6. A ________ is an evaluation of the meaning and significance of the situation--whether its effect on one's well-being is positive, irrelevant, or negative.
    primary appraisal
  7. During _______, if people judge the situation to be withing their control, they make an evalutaion of available resources-- physical, social, psychological, material, and time.
    secondary appraisal
  8. ________ refers to a person's efforts through action and thought to deal with demands percieved as taxing or overwhelming.
  9. _______ is direct; it consists of reducing, modifying, or eliminating the source of stress itself.
    Problem-focused coping
  10. ________ involves reappraising a stressor to reduce its emotinoal impact.
    Emotional-focused coping
  11. The national science foundation defines ________ as any treatment or therapy that has not been scientifically demonstrated to be effective.
    alternative medicine
  12. Stage fright is one manifestation of a fearful state of mind that psychologists call ______.
  13. _______ are the most common category of mental disorders and account for more than 4 million visits to doctors' offices each year in the United States.
    Anxiety disorder
  14. A _______ is a sudden feeling of fear in which the heart pounds, the body shakes, and the person has a choking sensation.
    panic attack
  15. A person with _______ has an intense fear of being in a situation from which immediate escape is not possible or in which help would not be available if she or he should become overwhelmed by anxiety or experience.
  16. The _______ involve physical symptoms that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition.
    somatoform disorders
  17. People with ______ are overly concerned about their health and fear that their bodily symptoms are a sign of serious disease.
  18. A person is diagnosed with a ________ when there is a loss of motor sensory functioning ni some part of the body, which is not due to a physical causebut which solves a psychological problem.
    conversion disorder
  19. In response to unbearable stress, some people develop a ________, in which they lose the ability to consciously intergrate their identities.
    dissociative disorder
  20. For example, ________ is a complete or partial loss of the ability to recall personal information or identify past experiences that cannot be attributed to ordinary forgetfulness or substance use.
    dissociative amnesia
  21. Even more puzzling than dissociative amnesia is ________, in the disorder that afflicted Ray Power, whose story you read at the beginning of this section. In a fugue state, people not only forget their identity but, like Powerm they also travel away from home.
    dissociative fugue.
  22. In ________, two or more distinct, unique personalities exist in the same individual, and there is severe memory disruption concerning personal information about the other personalities.
    dissociative identity disorder (DID)
  23. The personality in contorl of the body the largest percentage of time is known as the ________.
    host personality
  24. The alternate personalities, or ________, may differ redically in intelligence, speech, accent, vocabulary, posture, body language, hairstyle, taste in clothes, manners, and even hand writing and sexual orientation.
    alter personalities
  25. ________ attempt to uncover repressed childhood eperiences that are thought to explain a client's current difficulties.
    Psychodynamic therapies
  26. The techniques associated with the first such therapy--Freud's ________--are still used by some psychodynamic therapists today.
  27. One such technique is ________, im which the client is asked to reveal whatever thoughts, feelings, or images come to mind, no matter how trivial, embarrassing, or terrible they might seem.
    free association
  28. But some individuals avoid revealing certain painful or embarrassing thoughts while engagin in free association, a phenomenon Freud caled ________.
  29. _______ is another technique used by psychoanalysts. Freud believed that areas of emotional concern repressed in waking life are sometimes epressed in symbolic form in dreams.
    Dream analysis
  30. At some point during psychoanlaysis, Freud said the patient reacts to the analyst with the same feelings that were present in another significant relationship, usually with the mother or father. this reaction of the patient is called ________.
  31. _______ therapists represent a somewhat different take on classical psychoanalysis. From their perspective, the main goal of the personaity is to forge functional links between the self and others in the environment.
    Object relations
  32. ________ is a brief psychodynamic therapy that has proven very effective in the tratment of depression.
    Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
  33. _________ assume that people have the ability and freedom to lead rational livs and make rational choices.
    Humanistic therapies
  34. One of the founders of the humanistic approach, Carl Rogers, developed _______, also called client-centered therapy.
    person-centered therapy
  35. According to this view, people are innately good and, if allowed to develop naturally, will grow toward ________--the realization of their inner potential
  36. The person-centered therapist attempts to create an acceptin climate, based on ________.
    unconditional positive regard
  37. To convey empathic understanding to the client, Rogers claimed that the therapist must adopt an attitude of ________ or ________, that is, a willingness to communicate with the client on a person-to-person basis rather than as an authority figure who whill pass judgment on and give advice to the client.
    congruence, genuineness
  38. When the client speaks, the therapist responds by restating or reflecting back her or his ideas and feelings, a strategy known as ________.
    active listening
  39. Rogers rejected all forms of therapy that cast the therapist in the role of expert and clients in the role of patients who epect the therapist to prescrive something that "cures" their problem. Thus, person-centered therapy is called a ________.
    nondirective therapy
  40. _______, developed by Fritz Perls, emphasizes the importance of clients' fully experiencing, in the present moment, their feelings, thoughts, and actions and then taking responsibility for them.
    Gestalt therapy
  41. Gestalt therapy is a _______, one in which the therapist takes an active role in determining the course of therapy sessions and provides answers and suggestions to the client.
    directive therapy
  42. The goal of Beck's _______ is to help clients stop their negative thoughts as they occcur and replace them with more objective thoughts.
    cognitive therapy
  43. _______ known as neuroleptics are prescribed primarily for schizophrenia.
    Antipsychotic drugs
  44. The long-term use of typical antipsychotic drugs carries a high risk of a severe side effect, ________--almost continual twitching and jerking movements of the face and tongue, and squirming movments of the hands and trunk.
    tardive dyskinesia
  45. Newer antipsychotic drugs called _______ can treat not only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but also the negative symptoms, leading to marked improvement in patients' quality of life.
    atypical neuroleptics
  46. ________ act as mood elevators for people who are severly depressed and are also helpful in the treatment of certain anierty disorders.
    Antidepressant drugs
  47. The first-generation antidepressants are known as the ________.
  48. The second-generation antidepressants, the ________, block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin, increasing its availablity at the synapses in the brain.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs)
  49. Another line of treatment for depression is the use of _______.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
  50. _______, a naturally occuring salt, is considered a wonder drug for 40% to 50% of patients suffering from bipolar disorder.
  51. Recent research suggest that _______, such as Depakote, may be just as effective for managing bipolar symptoms as lithium, with fewer side effects.
    anticonvulsant drugs
  52. The family of minor tranquilizers called ________ includes, among others, the well-known drugs sold as Valium and Librium and the newer high-potency drug Xanax.
  53. And cultural differences between therapist and client may undermine the _______, the bond between therapist and client that is known to be a factor in the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
    therapeutic alliance
  54. Thus, many experts advocate an approach called ________ in which knowledge of clients' cultural backgrounds guides the choice of therpeutic interventions.
    culturally sensitive therapy.
  55. Traditional Native American _______, for example, are being used by many mental health practitioners who serve Native Americans.
    healing circles
  56. Many psychotherapists also note the need for ________, a therapeutic approach that takes into the account the effects of gneder on both the therapist's and the client's behavior.
    gender-sensitive therapy