Researchers Homes and Rahe developed the ________ to measure stress by ranking different life events from most to least stressful and assigining a point value to each event.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
Richard Lazzarus believes that the little stressors, which he calls _______, cause more stress than major life events do.
According to Lazarus, ________, or positive experiences in life, may nuetralize the effects of many hassles.
However, for some, these events lead to ________, a prolonged and severe stress reaction to a catastrophic event.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Many survivors of war or catastrophic events experience ________ because they lived while others died; some feel that perhaps they could have done more to save others.
A ________ is an evaluation of the meaning and significance of the situation--whether its effect on one's well-being is positive, irrelevant, or negative.
During _______, if people judge the situation to be withing their control, they make an evalutaion of available resources-- physical, social, psychological, material, and time.
________ refers to a person's efforts through action and thought to deal with demands percieved as taxing or overwhelming.
_______ is direct; it consists of reducing, modifying, or eliminating the source of stress itself.
________ involves reappraising a stressor to reduce its emotinoal impact.
The national science foundation defines ________ as any treatment or therapy that has not been scientifically demonstrated to be effective.
Stage fright is one manifestation of a fearful state of mind that psychologists call ______.
_______ are the most common category of mental disorders and account for more than 4 million visits to doctors' offices each year in the United States.
A _______ is a sudden feeling of fear in which the heart pounds, the body shakes, and the person has a choking sensation.
A person with _______ has an intense fear of being in a situation from which immediate escape is not possible or in which help would not be available if she or he should become overwhelmed by anxiety or experience.
The _______ involve physical symptoms that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition.
People with ______ are overly concerned about their health and fear that their bodily symptoms are a sign of serious disease.
A person is diagnosed with a ________ when there is a loss of motor sensory functioning ni some part of the body, which is not due to a physical causebut which solves a psychological problem.
In response to unbearable stress, some people develop a ________, in which they lose the ability to consciously intergrate their identities.
For example, ________ is a complete or partial loss of the ability to recall personal information or identify past experiences that cannot be attributed to ordinary forgetfulness or substance use.
Even more puzzling than dissociative amnesia is ________, in the disorder that afflicted Ray Power, whose story you read at the beginning of this section. In a fugue state, people not only forget their identity but, like Powerm they also travel away from home.
In ________, two or more distinct, unique personalities exist in the same individual, and there is severe memory disruption concerning personal information about the other personalities.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
The personality in contorl of the body the largest percentage of time is known as the ________.
The alternate personalities, or ________, may differ redically in intelligence, speech, accent, vocabulary, posture, body language, hairstyle, taste in clothes, manners, and even hand writing and sexual orientation.
________ attempt to uncover repressed childhood eperiences that are thought to explain a client's current difficulties.
The techniques associated with the first such therapy--Freud's ________--are still used by some psychodynamic therapists today.
One such technique is ________, im which the client is asked to reveal whatever thoughts, feelings, or images come to mind, no matter how trivial, embarrassing, or terrible they might seem.
But some individuals avoid revealing certain painful or embarrassing thoughts while engagin in free association, a phenomenon Freud caled ________.
_______ is another technique used by psychoanalysts. Freud believed that areas of emotional concern repressed in waking life are sometimes epressed in symbolic form in dreams.
At some point during psychoanlaysis, Freud said the patient reacts to the analyst with the same feelings that were present in another significant relationship, usually with the mother or father. this reaction of the patient is called ________.
_______ therapists represent a somewhat different take on classical psychoanalysis. From their perspective, the main goal of the personaity is to forge functional links between the self and others in the environment.
________ is a brief psychodynamic therapy that has proven very effective in the tratment of depression.
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
_________ assume that people have the ability and freedom to lead rational livs and make rational choices.
One of the founders of the humanistic approach, Carl Rogers, developed _______, also called client-centered therapy.
According to this view, people are innately good and, if allowed to develop naturally, will grow toward ________--the realization of their inner potential
The person-centered therapist attempts to create an acceptin climate, based on ________.
unconditional positive regard
To convey empathic understanding to the client, Rogers claimed that the therapist must adopt an attitude of ________ or ________, that is, a willingness to communicate with the client on a person-to-person basis rather than as an authority figure who whill pass judgment on and give advice to the client.
When the client speaks, the therapist responds by restating or reflecting back her or his ideas and feelings, a strategy known as ________.
Rogers rejected all forms of therapy that cast the therapist in the role of expert and clients in the role of patients who epect the therapist to prescrive something that "cures" their problem. Thus, person-centered therapy is called a ________.
_______, developed by Fritz Perls, emphasizes the importance of clients' fully experiencing, in the present moment, their feelings, thoughts, and actions and then taking responsibility for them.
Gestalt therapy is a _______, one in which the therapist takes an active role in determining the course of therapy sessions and provides answers and suggestions to the client.
The goal of Beck's _______ is to help clients stop their negative thoughts as they occcur and replace them with more objective thoughts.
_______ known as neuroleptics are prescribed primarily for schizophrenia.
The long-term use of typical antipsychotic drugs carries a high risk of a severe side effect, ________--almost continual twitching and jerking movements of the face and tongue, and squirming movments of the hands and trunk.
Newer antipsychotic drugs called _______ can treat not only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but also the negative symptoms, leading to marked improvement in patients' quality of life.
________ act as mood elevators for people who are severly depressed and are also helpful in the treatment of certain anierty disorders.
The first-generation antidepressants are known as the ________.
The second-generation antidepressants, the ________, block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin, increasing its availablity at the synapses in the brain.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs)
Another line of treatment for depression is the use of _______.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
_______, a naturally occuring salt, is considered a wonder drug for 40% to 50% of patients suffering from bipolar disorder.
Recent research suggest that _______, such as Depakote, may be just as effective for managing bipolar symptoms as lithium, with fewer side effects.
The family of minor tranquilizers called ________ includes, among others, the well-known drugs sold as Valium and Librium and the newer high-potency drug Xanax.
And cultural differences between therapist and client may undermine the _______, the bond between therapist and client that is known to be a factor in the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
Thus, many experts advocate an approach called ________ in which knowledge of clients' cultural backgrounds guides the choice of therpeutic interventions.
culturally sensitive therapy.
Traditional Native American _______, for example, are being used by many mental health practitioners who serve Native Americans.
Many psychotherapists also note the need for ________, a therapeutic approach that takes into the account the effects of gneder on both the therapist's and the client's behavior.