Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology
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2010-11-19 20:33:50
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Developmental Psychology
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  1. accommodation
    Modifying an existing schema to fit a new experience.
  2. adaptation
    Adjusting one's thinking to fit with environmental demands.
  3. animistic thinking
    The attribution of life to inanimate objects.
  4. assimilation
    Applying an existing schema to a new experience.
  5. basic reflex activity
    An infant's exercise of, and growing proficiency in, the use of innate reflexes.
  6. centration
    Focusing one's attention on only one dimension or characteristic of an object or situation.
  7. cognition
    The mental activity through which human beings acquire and process knowledge.
  8. community of learners
    • An approach to classroom learning in which adults and children work
    • together in shared activities, peers learn from each other, and the
    • teacher serves as a guide.
  9. concrete operations stage
    Stage in which the child is able to reason logically about materials that are physically present.
  10. conservation
    The understanding that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic attributes or properties.
  11. constructivist view
    • The idea that children actively create their understanding of the world
    • as they encounter new information and have new experiences.
  12. coordination of secondary circular reactions
    An infant's combination of different schemas to achieve a specific goal.
  13. core knowledge systems
    Ways of reasoning about ecologically important objects and events, such as the solidity and continuity of objects.
  14. deferred imitation
    • Mimicry of an action some time
    • after having observed it; requires that the child have some sort of
    • mental representation of the action.
  15. egocentric speech
    • According to Vygotsky, a form of
    • self-directed dialogue by which the child instructs herself in solving
    • problems and formulating plans; as the child matures, this becomes
    • internalized as inner speech.
  16. egocentrism
    The tendency to view the world from one's own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another's viewpoint.
  17. elementary mental functions
    • Psychological functions with which the child is endowed by nature,
    • including attention, perception, and involuntary memory, that emerge
    • spontaneously during children's interaction with the world.
  18. ends over means focus
    • Consideration of only the end state of a problem in evaluating an event;
    • failure to consider the means by which that end state was obtained.
  19. formal operations stage
    Stage in which the child becomes capable of abstract thinking, complex reasoning, and hypothesis testing.
  20. guided participation
    • Learning that occurs as children participate in activities of their
    • community and are guided in their participation by the actions of more
    • experienced partners in the setting.
  21. higher mental functions
    • Psychological functions, such as voluntary attention, complex memory
    • processes, and problem solving, that entail the coordination of several
    • cognitive processes and the use of mediators.
  22. horizontal décalage
    • The term Piaget used to describe unevenness in children's thinking
    • within a particular stage; for example, in developing an understanding
    • of conservation, children conserve different objects or substances at
    • different ages.
  23. inner speech
    Internalized egocentric speech that guides intellectual functioning.
  24. intent community participation
    Children's participation in the authentic activities of their community with the purpose of learning about the activity.
  25. intuitive substage
    • The second substage of the preoperational stage during which the child
    • begins to solve problems by using mental operations but cannot explain
    • how she arrives at the solutions.
  26. inventing new means by mental combination
    Children begin to combine schemas mentally and rely less on physical trial and error.
  27. mediators
    • Psychological tools and
    • signs—such as language, counting, mnemonic devices, algebraic symbols,
    • art, and writing—that facilitate and direct thinking processes.
  28. microgenetic changeChanges associated with learning that occur over the time of a specific learning experience or episode.
  29. object permanence
    • The notion that entities external to the child, such as objects and
    • people, continue to exist independent of the child's seeing or
    • interacting with them.
  30. operations
    Schemas based on internal mental activities.
  31. organization
    • Combining simple mental structures into more complex systems, a term
    • used by Piaget or also refers to a memory strategy that involves putting
    • together in some organized form the information to be remembered;
    • usually entails categorization and hierarchical relations.
  32. preconceptual substage
    The first substage of Piaget's preoperational period, during which the child's thought is characterized by the emergence of symbolic function, the rapid development of language, animistic thinking, and egocentricity.
  33. preoperational stage
    • In this stage, the ability to use symbols facilitates the learning of
    • language; this stage is also marked by semilogical reasoning,
    • egocentricity—in which the child sees the world from her own point of
    • view—and intuitive behavior, in which the child can solve problems using
    • mental operations but cannot explain how she did so.
  34. primary circular reactions
    Behaviors focused on the infant's own body that the infant repeats and modifies because they are pleasurable and satisfying.
  35. reciprocal instruction
    A tutoring approach based on the ideas of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding.
  36. reversibility
    • The understanding that the steps of a procedure or operation can be
    • reversed and that the original state of the object or event can be
    • obtained.
  37. scaffolding
    • An instructional process in which the more knowledgeable partner adjusts
    • the amount and type of support he offers to the child to fit with the
    • child's learning needs over the course of the interaction.
  38. schema (plural, schemas)
    • An organized unit of knowledge that the child uses to try to understand a
    • situation; a schema forms the basis for organizing actions to respond
    • to the environment.
  39. secondary circular reactions
    • Behaviors focused on objects outside the infant's own body that the
    • infant repeatedly engages in be cause they are pleasurable and
    • satisfying.
  40. sensorimotor stage
    • Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, during which children
    • change from basic reflexive behavior to the beginnings of symbolic
    • thought and goal-directed behaviors.
  41. stages of development
    Comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in the way a child thinks.
  42. symbolic function
    The ability to use symbols, such as images, words, and gestures, to represent objects and events in the world.
  43. symbolic thought
    The use of mental images and concepts to represent people, objects, and events.
  44. tertiary circular reactions
    • Behaviors in which infants experiment with the properties of external
    • objects and try to learn how objects respond to various actions.
  45. theory of mind
    Understanding of the mind and how it works.
  46. zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    • The region of sensitivity for learning characterized by the difference
    • between the developmental level of which a child is capable when working
    • alone and the level she is capable of reaching with the aid of a more
    • skilled partner.
  47. attention
    The identification and selection of particular sensory input for more detailed processing.
  48. autobiographical memory
    A collection of memories of things that have happened to a person at a specific time or place.
  49. automatization
    The process of transforming conscious, controlled behaviors into unconscious and automatic ones.
  50. cognitive map
    A mental representation of the spatial layout of a physical or geographic place.
  51. cognitive processes
    Ways that the human mental system operates on information.
  52. connectionist models
    Information processing approaches that describe mental processes in terms of the interconnections of the neural network.
  53. deductive reasoning
    Logical thinking that involves reaching a necessary and valid conclusion based on a set of premises.
  54. elaboration
    A memory strategy in which one adds to information to make it more meaningful and thus easier to remember.
  55. encoding
    The transformation of information from the environment into a mental representation.
  56. episodic memory
    Memory for specific events, often autobiographical in nature.
  57. executive control process
    A cognitive process that serves to control, guide, and monitor the success of a problem-solving approach a child uses.
  58. executive control structure
    According to Case, a mental blueprint or plan for solving a class of problems.
  59. generalization
    The application of a strategy learned while solving a problem in one situation to a similar problem in a new situation.
  60. hierarchical categorization
    The organization of concepts into levels of abstraction that range from the specific to the general.
  61. Information-processing approaches
    • Theories of development that focus on the flow of information through
    • the child's cognitive system and particularly on the specific operations
    • the child performs between input and output phases.
  62. long-term memory
    The mental processing unit in which information may be stored permanently and from which it may later be retrieved.
  63. mediational deficiency
    Inability to use strategies to store information in long-term memory.
  64. memory span
    The amount of information one can hold in short-term memory.
  65. mental representation
    Information stored mentally in some form (e.g., verbal, pictorial, procedural).
  66. metacognition
    The individual's knowledge about knowing and his control of cognitive activities.
  67. microgenetic analysis
    A very detailed examination of how a child solves a problem.
  68. multistore model
    A model of information processing in which information moves through a series of organized processing units—sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
  69. narrative form
    A temporally sequenced account that conveys meaning about an event.
  70. neo-Piagetian theories
    Theories of cognitive development that reinterpret Piaget's concepts from an information-processing perspective.
  71. organization
    • Combining simple mental structures into more complex systems, a term
    • used by Piaget or also refers to a memory strategy that involves putting
    • together in some organized form the information to be remembered;
    • usually entails categorization and hierarchical relations.
  72. planning
    The deliberate organization of a sequence of actions oriented toward achieving a goal.
  73. problem solving
    The identification of a goal and of steps to reach that goal.
  74. production deficiency
    Inability to generate and use a known memory strategies spontaneously.
  75. propositional reasoning
    Logical thinking that involves evaluating a statement or series of statements based on the information in the statement alone.
  76. rehearsal
    A memory strategy in which one repeats a number of times the information one wants to remember, either mentally or orally.
  77. script
    • A mental representation of an
    • event or situation of daily life, including the order in which things
    • are expected to happen and how one should behave in that event or
    • situation.
  78. selective attention
    A strategy in which one focuses on some features of the environment and ignores others.
  79. semantic memory
    All the world knowledge and facts a person possesses.
  80. sensory register
    The mental processing unit that takes information from the environment and stores it in original form for brief periods of time.
  81. short-term, or working, memory
    • The mental processing unit in which information is stored temporarily;
    • the "work space" of the mind, where a decision is made to discard
    • information, work on it, or transfer it to permanent storage in long-term memory.
  82. strategies
    Conscious cognitive or behavioral activities used to enhance mental performance.
  83. transitive inference
    The mental arrangement of things along a quantitative dimension.
  84. utilization deficiency
    Inability to use a known memory strategy or to benefit from the use of such a memory strategy.
  85. world knowledge
    What a child has learned from experience and knows about the world in general.
  86. achievement motivation
    • A person's tendency to strive for successful performance, to evaluate
    • her performance against standards of excellence, and to feel pleasure at
    • having performed successfully.
  87. associative learning
    • According to Jen sen, lower level learning tapped in tests of such
    • things as short-term memorization and recall, attention, rote learning,
    • and simple associative skills. Also called level I learning.
  88. Bayley Scales of Infant Development
    • A set of nonverbal tests that measure specific developmental milestones
    • and are generally used with children thought to be at risk for abnormal
    • development.
  89. cognitive learning
    • According to Jensen, higher level learning tapped in tests of such
    • things as abstract thinking, symbolic processing, and the use of
    • language in problem solving. Also called level II learning.
  90. congenital
    Characteristic acquired during development in the uterus or during the birth process and not through heredity.
  91. creativity
    The ability to solve problems, create products, or pose questions in a way that is novel or unique.
  92. culture-fair test
    A test that attempts to minimize cultural biases in content that might influence the test taker's responses.
  93. cumulative risk
    • The notion that risk factors in children's life circumstances have
    • cumulative negative effects on their intellectual performance.
  94. deviation IQ
    An IQ score that indicates the extent to which a person's performance on a test deviates from age-mates' average performance.
  95. factor analysis
    • A statistical procedure used to
    • determine which of a number of factors, or scores, are both closely
    • related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of
    • factors, or scores.
  96. Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence
    • A test of how infants process information, including encoding attributes
    • of objects and seeing similarities and differences across objects.
  97. Flynn effect
    • Increase in the average IQ score
    • in the populations of the United States and other developed countries
    • since the early 1900s, a phenomenon identified by J. R. Flynn
  98. general factor (g)
    General mental ability involved in all cognitive tasks.
  99. Head Start
    • A federally funded program that provides disadvantaged young children
    • with preschool experience, social services, and medical and nutritional
    • assistance.
  100. inclusion
    • A policy by which children of all
    • ability levels, whether learning disabled, physically handicapped, or
    • mentally retarded, are included in the same classroom.
  101. intellectual giftedness
    • A characteristic defined by an IQ score of 130 or over; gifted children
    • learn faster than others and may show early exceptional talents in
    • certain areas.
  102. intelligence quotient (IQ)
    An index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform.
  103. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)
    • An intelligence test designed to measure several types of information
    • processing skills as well as achievement in some academic subjects.
  104. learning disabilities
    Deficits in one or more cognitive processes important for learning.
  105. mental age
    An index of a child's actual performance on an intelligence test compared with his true age.
  106. mental retardation
    • A characteristic defined by an IQ score below 70 together with
    • difficulty in coping with age-appropriate activities of everyday life.
  107. psychometrician
    • A psychologist who specializes in
    • the construction and use of tests designed to measure various
    • psychological constructs such as intelligence and various personality
    • characteristics.
  108. recovery
    The ability to recognize a new stimulus as novel and to direct attention to it in preference to a familiar stimulus.
  109. reliability
    The degree to which a test yields consistent results over time or successive administrations.
  110. specific factors (s)
    Factors unique to particular cognitive tasks.
  111. standardization
    • The process by which test
    • constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions, and scoring
    • are identical, or as nearly so as possible, on every testing occasion.
  112. Stanford-Binet Test
    The modern version of the first major intelligence test; emphasizes verbal and mathematical skills.
  113. stereotype threat
    Being at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about the group to which one belongs.
  114. successful intelligence
    • Ability to fit into, change, and choose environments that best fulfill
    • one's own needs and desires as well as the demands of one's society and
    • culture. Includes analytical, creative, and practical abilities.
  115. tacit knowledge
    Implicit knowledge that is shared by many people and that guides behavior.
  116. test norms
    Values, or sets of values, that describe the typical test performance of a specific group of people.
  117. theory of multiple intelligences
    Gardner's multifactorial theory that proposes eight distinct types of intelligence.
  118. triarchic theory of intelligence
    • A theory that proposes three major components of intelligence:
    • information-processing skills, experience with a task, and ability to
    • adapt to the demands of a context.
  119. two-generation program
    A program of early cognitive intervention that extends help to parents as well as to their children.
  120. validity
    The extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure.
  121. Wechsler Intelligence Scales
    • Three intelligence tests for preschool children, school-age children,
    • and adults that yield separate scores for verbal and performance IQ as
    • well as a combined IQ score.
  122. authoritarian parenting
    Parenting that is harsh, unresponsive, and rigid and in which parents tend to use power-assertive methods of control.
  123. authoritative parenting
    • Parenting that is warm, responsive, and involved yet unintrusive and in
    • which parents set reasonable limits and expect appropriately mature
    • behavior from their children.
  124. coparenting
    • Parenting in which spouses work
    • together as a team, coordinating their child-rearing practices with each
    • other; coparenting can be cooperative, hostile, or characterized by
    • different levels of investment in the parenting task.
  125. extended family
    • A family that includes relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles,
    • nieces, and nephews within the basic family unit of parents and
    • children.
  126. joint legal custody
    • A form of child custody in
    • which both parents retain and share responsibility for decisions
    • regarding the child's life, although the child usually resides with one
    • parent.
  127. joint physical custody
    • As in joint legal custody, parents make decisions together regarding
    • their child's life, but they also share physical custody so that the
    • child lives with each parent for a portion of the year.
  128. latchkey children
    Children who must let themselves into their homes after school because one parent or both parents are working outside the home.
  129. permissive parenting
    • Parenting that is lax and in which parents exercise inconsistent
    • discipline and encourage children to express their impulses freely.
  130. sexual abuse
    • Inappropriate sexual activity
    • between an adult and a child for the perpetrator's pleasure or benefit;
    • the abuse may be direct (sexual contact of any type) or indirect
    • (exposing a child to pornography or to the live exhibition of body parts
    • or sexual acts).
  131. Socialization
    • The process by which parents and others ensure that a child's standards
    • of behavior, attitudes, skills, and motives conform closely to those
    • deemed appropriate to her role in society.
  132. traditional nuclear family
    • The traditional family form, composed of two parents and one or more
    • children, in which the father is the breadwinner and the mother the
    • homemaker.
  133. uninvolved parenting
    Parenting that is indifferent and neglectful and in which parents focus on their own needs rather than their children's needs.
  134. Piaget used children's incorrect responses on tests as a basis for understanding how children think.

    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  135. Piaget's theory of cognitive development is referred to as a constructivist view.

    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  136. Piaget believed that some children skip the concrete stage of cognitive development due to their high intellectual abilities.

    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  137. Containment events and occlusion events are examples of event knowledge.

    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  138. One of the preoperational child's major accomplishments is the acquisition of language.

    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  139. Current research suggests that Piaget may have overestimated the timing or onset of children's cognitive abilities.

    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  140. Vygotsky proposed that cognitive development is the result of children's
    interactions with more experienced members of their cultural community.

    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  141. According to Vygotsky, higher mental functions emerge spontaneously in children's interaction with the world.

    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  142. When considering cognitive function, Vygotsky and Piaget had similar views on the importance of egocentric speech.

    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  143. Vygotsky's theory emphasizes microgenetic change rather than ontogenetic change.

    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  144. In Piaget's theory, an organized unit of knowledge is called a(n)
    A)adaptation.
    B)operation.
    C)assimilation.
    D)schema.
    D)schema.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  145. Two-year-old Miguel
    visits the zoo for the first time. When passing the lion cage, Miguel
    exclaims, "Kitty!" Miguel is demonstrating
    A)assimilation.
    B)equilibration.
    C)accommodation.
    D)adaptation.
    A)assimilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  146. When a child adjusts an existing schemata to fit a new experience, the child is
    A)conserving.
    B)organizing.
    C)assimilating.
    D)accommodating.
    D)accommodating.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  147. Ray, age 5 months,
    watches as Mom places his teddy bear beneath his blanket during a game
    of peek-a-boo. Mom observes that Ray forgets about his bear if she
    leaves it hidden for more than a few seconds. According to Piaget, Ray
    has not yet developed
    A)primary circular reactions.
    B)basic reflex activity.
    C)object permanence.
    D)assimilation.
    C)object permanence.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  148. Alice's
    3-month-old baby, Amy, finds sucking her fingers very pleasurable after
    accidentally placing her hand in her mouth one day. Amy now prefers to
    suck on her fingers instead of her pacifier. Amy is most likely in which
    stage of development?
    A)coordination of secondary schema
    B)basic reflex activity
    C)primary circular reactions
    D)tertiary circular reactions
    C)primary circular reactions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  149. According to Piaget, in the substage called "coordination of secondary circular reactions" an infant is able to
    A)think symbolically.
    B)experiment with external objects
    C)plan deliberately to attain a goal.
    .D)engage in internal problem solving.
    C)plan deliberately to attain a goal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  150. One-year-old
    Ashley continually drops objects from her highchair and appears to be
    fascinated by watching the objects fall. Ashley is most likely at which
    stage of Piaget's theory?
    A)primary circular reactions
    B)coordination of secondary reactions
    C)tertiary circular reactions
    D)secondary circular reactions
    C)tertiary circular reactions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  151. Which of the following is an example of a core knowledge system?
    A)event knowledge
    B)symbolic thought
    C)reversibility
    D)deferred imitation
    A)event knowledge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  152. According to Piaget, the preconceptual substage is characterized by
    A)animistic thinking.
    B)conservation.
    C)concrete thinking.
    D)understanding part-whole relations.
    A)animistic thinking.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget's three-mountains task?
    A)The task was never cross-culturally tested.
    B)The mountains contained too many familiar items, such as snowcaps and trees.
    C)The task of reconstructing the display may be beyond a young child's ability.
    D)Many children were not familiar with mountains.
    C)The task of reconstructing the display may be beyond a young child's ability.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. Three-year-old Kasey saw a tree with droopy leaves and commented that the tree was "tired." Kasey's thinking reflects
    A)object permanence.
    B)reversibility.
    C)animistic thinking.
    D)centration.
    C)animistic thinking.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. One
    reason preoperational children are not able to solve conservation tasks
    is that they focus on only one dimension of an object. Piaget referred
    to this as
    A)reversibility.
    B)ends over means focus.
    C)animistic.
    D)centration.
    D)centration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. Researchers use a "false-belief task" to study which of the following?
    A)reversibility
    B)concrete operations
    C)reciprocal perspective
    D)theory of mind
    D)theory of mind
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. According to Vygotsky, voluntary attention as well as logical and abstract thinking are part of
    A)formal operations.
    B)higher mental functions.
    C)the zone of proximal development.
    D)elementary mental functions.
    C)the zone of proximal development.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. An application of Vygotsky's theory to enhance reading comprehension is called
    A)community of learners.
    B)reciprocal instruction.
    C)scaffolding.
    D)guided participation.
    B)reciprocal instruction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. Information-processing
    theory assumes that children use the knowledge they have acquired from
    earlier problem solving to modify responses to new problems.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  160. We lose information from the sensory register within 15 to 30 seconds.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  161. Connectionist models of human information processing are often referred to as neural networks.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  162. The action-relevant features of objects are called affordances.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  163. As children get older, they rely less on selective attention when they are learning new tasks.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  164. One of the simplest strategies for memory recall is rehearsal.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  165. It has been determined that young children do not use strategies to help them remember because of a mediational deficiency.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  166. Autobiographical memory emerges in the early years of life and develops substantially over the preschool years.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  167. Young children are less rigid in their applications of scripts than older children and adults.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  168. The two components of metacognition are knowledge about knowing and control of cognitive functioning.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  169. The sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory are all components of the
    A)post-Vygotsky model.
    B)multistore model.
    C)connectionist model.
    D)neo-Piagetian model.
    B)multistore model.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. Parallel distributed processing is an essential part of which information-processing model?
    A)multistore model
    B)connectionist model
    C)neo-Piagetian model
    D)post-Vygotsky model
    )connectionist model
  171. The process of changing information into mental representations is called
    A)strategizing.
    B)automatizing.
    C)encoding.
    D)generalizing.
    C)encoding.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. The first time Kendra
    sees a dog, she notices that it has four legs. The second time she sees a
    dog, she observes that it has a tail. The third time, she notices the
    dog's tongue. This description of perceptual learning best fits
    A)discrimination theory.
    B)differentiation theory.
    C)enrichment theory.
    D)composition theory.
    C)enrichment theory.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. The perception of the invariant properties of objects and events is essential to the
    A)composition view.
    B)discrimination view.
    C)enrichment view.
    D)differentiation view.
    D)differentiation view.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. Why might 4-year-old Brianna not receive much educational benefit from the lessons Big Bird delivers on SESAME STREET?
    A)Four-year-old children rarely become engaged in television programs.
    B)Four-year-old children show a distinct preference for cartoons.
    C)The SESAME STREET lessons are geared to the attention spans of younger children.
    D)She is more likely to pay attention to Big Bird's appearance than to what he is saying.
    D)She is more likely to pay attention to Big Bird's appearance than to what he is saying.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. The textbook mentions each of the following as a memory strategy commonly used by adults EXCEPT
    A)organization.
    B)mediation.
    C)elaboration.
    D)rehearsal.
    B)mediation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. Children's spontaneous use of organization to facilitate memory appears in
    A)the preschool years.
    B)late elementary school.
    C)high school.
    D)early elementary school.
    B)late elementary school.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. A
    memory strategy that involves adding to the information one wants to
    remember in an effort to make the information more meaningful is called
    A)elaboration.
    B)organization.
    C)mediation.
    D)rehearsal.
    A)elaboration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. Which of the following represents the correct sequence in the development of a cognitive map?
    A)landmark knowledge, combine routes, route knowledge
    B)route knowledge, combine routes, landmark knowledge
    C)landmark knowledge, route knowledge, combine routes
    D)route knowledge, landmark knowledge, combine routes
    C)landmark knowledge, route knowledge, combine routes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. Young children have trouble using symbolic representation because of their inability to
    A)use deductive reasoning.
    B)form a dual representation.
    C)form scripts.
    D)develop an effective strategy.
    B)form a dual representation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. Researchers have used syllogisms to study
    A)propositional reasoning.
    B)metacognition.
    C)transitive inference.
    D)hierarchical categorization.
    A)propositional reasoning.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  181. Research using sequential touching has confirmed that infants have some knowledge of
    A)numerical reasoning.
    B)metacognition.
    C)class-inclusion relationships.
    D)prepositional reasoning.
    C)class-inclusion relationships.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. According to Gelman, if a child understands the cardinal principle of counting, then she understands that
    A)numbers are always assigned in the same order.
    B)the order in which objects are counted is irrelevant.
    C)a single number can be used to describe the total of a set.
    D)each object should be counted once and only once.
    C)a single number can be used to describe the total of a set.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. According to the textbook, which one of the following is related to metacognition?
    A)development of a theory of mind
    B)knowledge about language skills
    C)deductive reasoning
    D)numerical reasoning
    A)development of a theory of mind
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  184. Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence is an example of the factor analytic approach.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  185. The Raven Progressive Matrices test was designed as a culture-fair test.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  186. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children uses mental age as a basis for estimating intelligence.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  187. High-IQ children are likely to show greater amounts of change in their IQ test results over time than low-IQ children.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  188. When mastery-oriented children perform poorly, they blame their own lack of ability for their performance.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  189. Minority children are more likely to be inappropriately classified as mentally retarded than European-American children.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  190. Non-genetic factors contribute about 20 percent of the variation in IQ scores.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  191. Head Start children exhibit higher social skills than similar children who have not participated in the program.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  192. Mental retardation is diagnosed by assessing the child's mental functioning and his or her adaptive behavior.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  193. The creative person excels at divergent thinking while the intelligent person excels at convergent thinking.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  194. Charles Spearman proposed that intelligence consists of
    A)a general factor and a number of specific factors.
    B)seven primary skills.
    C)eight independent factors.
    D)three major components.
    A)a general factor and a number of specific factors.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. According to Sternberg, intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is exercised. This is referred to as
    A)emotional intelligence.
    B)experience.
    C)tacit intelligence.
    D)context.
    D)context.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  196. Sternberg (2001) found that salary and job performance of adult workers was predicted by
    A)experience.
    B)analytical abilities.
    C)creative abilities
    D)tacit knowledge.
    D)tacit knowledge.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  197. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development consist of each of the following components EXCEPT
    A)the motor scale.
    B)the mental scale.
    C)the reflex scale.
    D)examiner observation.
    C)the reflex scale.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. According to the Stanford-Binet Test, a child with a mental age of 10 and a chronological age of 8 would have an IQ of
    A)10.
    B)80.
    C)133.
    D)125.
    D)125.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. The deviation IQ is a concept used by which intelligence test?
    A)Kaufman Assessment Battery
    B)Bayley Scales of Infant Development
    C)Wechsler Intelligence Scales
    D)Stanford-Binet Test
    C)Wechsler Intelligence Scales
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  200. The extent to which a test produces consistent results is referred to as
    A)reliability.
    B)standardization.
    C)norm-referencing.
    D)validity.
    A)reliability.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  201. Which of the following involves correlating performance on a test with a criterion?
    A)norm-referencing
    B)validity
    C)standardization
    D)reliability
    B)validity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  202. Arthur Jensen suggests that intelligence is mainly due to
    A)cultural and educational factors.
    B)genetics.
    C)economic factors.
    D)family interactions.
    B)genetics.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. Mercer's 1971 study of children and young adults with IQ scores below 70 found that
    A)about 25% of children from each ethnic/racial group passed the test for adaptive skills.
    B)a majority of African-American and Latino children passed the test for adaptive skills.
    C)a majority of European-American children passed the test for adaptive skills.
    D)children from all ethnic and racial backgrounds showed remarkable adaptive skills.
    B)a majority of African-American and Latino children passed the test for adaptive skills.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  204. Scarr and Weinberg's
    (1976) study of African-American children who were adopted by
    economically well-off European-American parents found that
    A)heredity is the most significant factor in determining intelligence.
    B)environment is the most significant factor in determining intelligence.
    C)children who were adopted at a younger age had higher IQ scores.
    D)heredity is the most significant factor in determining intelligence if the child is adopted before 12 months of age.
    C)children who were adopted at a younger age had higher IQ scores.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  205. Research on parent-child
    interactions has found that infants from which social class were most
    likely to stop vocalizing and listen when their mothers spoke?
    A)lower class
    B)upper middle class
    C)higher class
    D)middle class
    D)middle class
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. According to the textbook, the most successful cognitive intervention endeavors focus on
    A)encouraging parents to take advantage of community resources.
    B)involving parents in their children's education.
    C)the parent-child relationship.
    D)intervening with children at the age of 6 and older.
    C)the parent-child relationship.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  207. A general characteristic of gifted children is
    A)efficient use of their cognitive skills.
    B)demonstration of multiple intelligences.
    C)low self-esteem.
    D)poor social skills.
    A)efficient use of their cognitive skills.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. Which of the following characterizes divergent thinking?
    A)thinking in order to remember specific information
    B)imaginative thinking
    C)solving traditional problems to find the correct answers
    D)thinking designed to produce correct answers
    B)imaginative thinking
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. Boys are more susceptible to the negative effects of family disharmony than girls.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  210. Authoritative parenting is correlated with the behavior of conflicted-irritable children.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  211. Firstborn children are generally more self-controlled and studious than their siblings.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  212. Being poor in early childhood is much more detrimental than being poor in middle childhood.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  213. Maternal employment is negatively correlated to children's socioemotional development.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  214. Children in well-functioning single-parent households are better adjusted than children in conflict-ridden nuclear families.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  215. Divorce has more adverse consequences for young girls than young boys.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  216. Adolescence triggers behavior problems in both boys and girls in divorced and remarried families.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  217. Preschool children of teen mothers display higher levels of aggression and less ability to control impulse behavior.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  218. Sexual abuse is more common in families who live in poverty.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  219. According
    to Baumrind, which of the following parenting styles is associated with
    energetic-friendly children who generally exhibit positive development?
    A)authoritarian
    B)authoritative
    C)uninvolved
    D)permissive
    B)authoritative
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  220. According to the
    ecological family system perspective, the ability of the family to adapt
    to changes both inside and outside the system is referred to as
    A)equifinality.
    B)morphogenesis.
    C)homeostasis.
    D)interdependency.
    D)interdependency.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  221. Under which family conflict resolution conditions did teachers rate children as tending to externalize problems?
    A)when mothers are more critical and intrusive in their interactions with children
    B)when there is hostile interaction between parents
    C)when both parents ignore the conflict
    D)when fathers are depressed and withdrawn
    B)when there is hostile interaction between parents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  222. The birth of the first child
    A)often destroys good marriages if the child is unplanned.
    B)is associated with an increase in marital satisfaction by mothers.
    C)is associated with an increase in family cohesion.
    D)is associated with a shift toward a more traditional division of family roles.
    D)is associated with a shift toward a more traditional division of family roles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  223. According to Baumrind, permissive parenting is correlated with which type of child behavior?
    A)conflicted-irritable
    B)energetic-friendly
    C)moody/low self-esteem
    D)impulsive-aggressive
    D)impulsive-aggressive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  224. According to the textbook, supporters of the status quo tend to be:
    A)the youngest children.
    B)middle children with three or more siblings.
    C)firstborn sons.
    D)only children.
    C)firstborn sons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  225. Since the early 1970s, the percentage of U.S. children living in poverty has
    A)remained approximately the same.
    B)dropped dramatically.
    C)risen by more than 60 percent.
    D)dropped more in the United States than in Canada or Europe.
    C)risen by more than 60 percent.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  226. Research suggests that children perform best in school when achievement is supported both by the children's parents and
    A)extended family members.
    B)peers.
    C)siblings.
    D)teachers.
    B)peers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  227. Which of the following characterizes the changing American family?
    A)increase in the proportion of traditional nuclear families
    B)decrease in the average household size
    C)decrease in out-of-wedlock births
    D)fewer single-parent households
    B)decrease in the average household size
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  228. Which parenting style is typical of stepfathers generally?
    A)authoritative
    B)permissive
    C)authoritarian
    D)uninvolved
    D)uninvolved
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  229. The
    Terman study found that those who had experienced parental divorce in
    childhood were adversely affected in which one of the following areas?
    A)job stability
    B)longevity
    C)criminality
    D)rates of alcoholism
    B)longevity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  230. Following a divorce, the best predictor of children's adjustment is the
    A)type of joint physical custody.
    B)geographic distance between the ex-spouses.
    C)degree of parental conflict.
    D)type of joint legal custody.
    C)degree of parental conflict.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  231. Which of the following is TRUE regarding parenting after the age of thirty?
    A)Older mothers spend less social time with their babies.
    B)Older fathers may be generally more involved in the parent role.
    C)Older fathers engage in more strenuous play with their children.
    D)Older fathers are less involved in the parental role.
    B)Older fathers may be generally more involved in the parent role.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  232. Which of the following is TRUE regarding teenage pregnancy and parenthood?
    A)Approximately two-thirds of teenage mothers are married.
    B)Adolescent children of teen mothers have higher rates of incarceration.
    C)Birth rates for teens have risen sharply in recent years.
    D)Teenage mothers show nurturing skills similar to other mothers.
    B)Adolescent children of teen mothers have higher rates of incarceration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  233. Two factors commonly seen in abuse of children are a distressed marriage and
    A)the abuse of one of the marital partners by his or her own parents.
    B)substandard housing.
    C)poverty.
    D)severe mental illness.
    A)the abuse of one of the marital partners by his or her own parents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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