Lab Final

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tasha081
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50665
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Lab Final
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2010-11-19 22:52:44
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Lab Final
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Lab Final Review
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  1. Sporangia
    sacs containing asexual spores
  2. Condiophores
    supporting sttructures for unprotected dust-like spores; spread in wind
  3. Asexual fruiting bodies are....
    microscopic
  4. Sexual fruiting bodies are.....
    visible to naked eye ie: Mushroom
  5. arthrospores
    spores formed by fragmentation of the hyphae
  6. blastopores
    yeast bud from parent yeast cell that breaks free
  7. heterokaryon
    fusion cell with genetically different nuclei, sharing a common dikaryotic cytoplasm
  8. What does it mean that fungi are saprophytes?
    They take up nutrients by absorption
  9. Fungi are:
    A. Prokaryotes
    B. Eukaryotes
    B. Eukaryotes
  10. How is a zygote made?
    Nuclei fuse w/ a diploid chromosome number
  11. What is the typical asexual fungal life cycle of a mold?
    germination ----> mycelium ------> spore producing structure ----->spores
  12. Zygomycota
    • sexually and asexually produced spores
    • non-septae hyphae
    • molds
  13. Ascomycota
    • sexual or asexual reproduction
    • septate hyphae
    • diverse group
  14. Basidiomycota
    • sexual or asexual
    • septae hyphae
    • mushrooms
  15. What are rhizoids?
    specialized structures that secure mold to food sources
  16. What does aspergillus produce?
    aflatoxin - mycotoxin which is a potent carinogen
  17. What is a lichen?
    • mutualistic associate b/t a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
    • survive harsh coniditions
  18. What are the three different yeast species?
    • -Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast)
    • -Candida albicans
    • -Cryptococcus neoformans
  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • -bakers yeast
    • -asomycete
    • -facultative aerobe (ferments glucose procuding ETOH and co2)
    • -mostly reproduce through asexual budding
  20. Candida albicans
    • -normal flora of mouth, gut, vagina
    • -yeast infections often caused by antibiotic therapy
    • -thrush, vulvovaginitis
  21. Cryptococcus neoformans
    • -basidiomycota
    • -provides resistance to phagocytosis
    • -most dangerous fungal disease
    • -found in pigeon droppings
  22. What are the 4 types of mycotic diseases?
    • 1) Hypersensitivity - allergic reaction to molds and spores
    • 2) Mycotoxicoses - toxic poisoining of man and animals by contaminated feeds and foods
    • 3) Mycetismus - ingestion of toxin (shrooms)
    • 4) Fungal infection - growth of fungus affects organ functioning
  23. Enterobius vermincularis
    • -pinworm
    • -eggs ingested by human, eggs attach on perianal folds, reingested, cycle continues
  24. Necator americanus
    • -hookworm
    • -host: human, cats, dogs
    • -attach in human intestine
    • -penetrates through skin (bare feet) soil borne
  25. Ascaris lumbricoides
    • -roundworm
    • -ingested in contanimated food and then eggs hatch and grow in small intestine
    • -contact to contact transmission
  26. Giardia lamblia
    • -travelers diarrhea
    • -fecal-oral through water and food
    • -release trophozoites
  27. Leishmania donovani
    • -flesh eating disease
    • -vector = sandfly
  28. Plasmodium malariae
    • -vector: female mosquito
    • -definitive host = mosquito (sexual reproduction)
    • -intermediate host = human (asexual reproduction)
  29. What is the purpose of an ELISA test?
    • -Enzyme Linked Immunosuppresorbent Assay
    • -viral and bacterial dx
    • -detection of antibodies
  30. What do B lymphocytes do?
    -produce and secrete antibodies
  31. What is an antibody
    • -protein
    • -produced by B cells
    • -recognize and gind to antigens
  32. What is an antigen?
    • foreign protein/chemical substance that elicit an immune response
    • usually found on cell surface
  33. What are the three different functions of antibodies?
    • -opsonization
    • -neutralization
    • -complement activation
  34. Opsonization
    • -antibodies cover bacteria
    • -macrophages recognize constant regions of antibodies, engulf bacteria and degrade organism
  35. Neutralization
    prevent bacteria or toxins from adhereing to cells
  36. Complement activation
    complement = blood plasma based proteins that recognize antibody bound pathogens and target them for destruction by macrophages
  37. order of ELISA steps
    • 1) known antigen added to well
    • 2) blocking buffer added to block all other proteins
    • 3) sample of patients serum added
    • 4) wash well
    • 5) secondary antibody added
    • 6) wash well
    • 7) chemical added to observe reaction
  38. What is the purpose of microarray?
    • gene expression profiling
    • used to compare gene expression of different cells exposed to different conditions
  39. How is a gene expressed?
    DNA coding for gene is transcribed to mRNA and then translated into protein
  40. What are the steps of a microarray?
    • 1) DNA sequences are printed onto a slide
    • 2) mRNA isolated from normal and experimental cells
    • 3) synthesize labeled cDNA from ea mRNA via reverse transcriptase
    • 4) Hybridize labeled cDNA's
    • 5) rinse unbound labeled cDNA's
    • 6)observe resulting colors to identify gene expression
  41. What causes toxic shock, scarlet fever?
    Streptococcus pyogenes
  42. What are the general properties of Enterobacteriaceae?
    • gram -
    • facultative anaerobes bacilli
    • oxidase-negative
    • non spore forming
    • transmitted by fecal-oral route
  43. What are the four types of E. coli?
    • Enteropathogenic E. coli
    • Enterotoxigenic E. coli
    • Enteroinvasive E. coli
    • Enterohemmorhagic E. coli
  44. Enteropathogenic E. coli
    • infant diarrhea
    • fever, vomiting, nausea
  45. Enterotoxigenic E. coli
    • mild to severe diarrhea
    • travelers diarrhea
    • heat stable
  46. Enteroinvasive E. coli
    dysentery (bloody diarrhea)
  47. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
    • usually sero type O157:H7
    • bloody large volume diarrhea
    • can get into bloodstream
    • vero-toxin
  48. Shigella species
    • -all cause dysentary
    • -only a few needed to cause disease (200)
    • -resistant to stomach acid
    • -Shiga toxin = neuro toxin
  49. Salmonella
    • -transmitted by contaminated food
    • -usually self limiting
    • -sever = typhoid fever
  50. Proteus
    • -opportunistic
    • -motile
    • -rapid urease positive
  51. Enterobacter
    • -opportunistic
    • -along w/ Klebsiella and Serratia primary cause of sepsis from contaminated IV fluids
    • -can multiply in glucose
  52. Serratia
    • -opportunistic
    • -hands of hospital personal = primary mode of transmission
    • -red pigment at room temperature
  53. Klebsiella
    • -non motile
    • -pneumonia
    • -hospital acquired
    • -nosocomial
    • -equipment and contaminated IV fluids/medication

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