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sacs containing asexual spores
supporting sttructures for unprotected dust-like spores; spread in wind
Asexual fruiting bodies are....
Sexual fruiting bodies are.....
visible to naked eye ie: Mushroom
spores formed by fragmentation of the hyphae
yeast bud from parent yeast cell that breaks free
fusion cell with genetically different nuclei, sharing a common dikaryotic cytoplasm
What does it mean that fungi are saprophytes?
They take up nutrients by absorption
How is a zygote made?
Nuclei fuse w/ a diploid chromosome number
What is the typical asexual fungal life cycle of a mold?
germination ----> mycelium ------> spore producing structure ----->spores
- sexually and asexually produced spores
- non-septae hyphae
- sexual or asexual reproduction
- septate hyphae
- diverse group
- sexual or asexual
- septae hyphae
What are rhizoids?
specialized structures that secure mold to food sources
What does aspergillus produce?
aflatoxin - mycotoxin which is a potent carinogen
What is a lichen?
- mutualistic associate b/t a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
- survive harsh coniditions
What are the three different yeast species?
- -Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast)
- -Candida albicans
- -Cryptococcus neoformans
- -bakers yeast
- -facultative aerobe (ferments glucose procuding ETOH and co2)
- -mostly reproduce through asexual budding
- -normal flora of mouth, gut, vagina
- -yeast infections often caused by antibiotic therapy
- -thrush, vulvovaginitis
- -provides resistance to phagocytosis
- -most dangerous fungal disease
- -found in pigeon droppings
What are the 4 types of mycotic diseases?
- 1) Hypersensitivity - allergic reaction to molds and spores
- 2) Mycotoxicoses - toxic poisoining of man and animals by contaminated feeds and foods
- 3) Mycetismus - ingestion of toxin (shrooms)
- 4) Fungal infection - growth of fungus affects organ functioning
- -eggs ingested by human, eggs attach on perianal folds, reingested, cycle continues
- -host: human, cats, dogs
- -attach in human intestine
- -penetrates through skin (bare feet) soil borne
- -ingested in contanimated food and then eggs hatch and grow in small intestine
- -contact to contact transmission
- -travelers diarrhea
- -fecal-oral through water and food
- -release trophozoites
- -flesh eating disease
- -vector = sandfly
- -vector: female mosquito
- -definitive host = mosquito (sexual reproduction)
- -intermediate host = human (asexual reproduction)
What is the purpose of an ELISA test?
- -Enzyme Linked Immunosuppresorbent Assay
- -viral and bacterial dx
- -detection of antibodies
What do B lymphocytes do?
-produce and secrete antibodies
What is an antibody
- -produced by B cells
- -recognize and gind to antigens
What is an antigen?
- foreign protein/chemical substance that elicit an immune response
- usually found on cell surface
What are the three different functions of antibodies?
- -complement activation
- -antibodies cover bacteria
- -macrophages recognize constant regions of antibodies, engulf bacteria and degrade organism
prevent bacteria or toxins from adhereing to cells
complement = blood plasma based proteins that recognize antibody bound pathogens and target them for destruction by macrophages
order of ELISA steps
- 1) known antigen added to well
- 2) blocking buffer added to block all other proteins
- 3) sample of patients serum added
- 4) wash well
- 5) secondary antibody added
- 6) wash well
- 7) chemical added to observe reaction
What is the purpose of microarray?
- gene expression profiling
- used to compare gene expression of different cells exposed to different conditions
How is a gene expressed?
DNA coding for gene is transcribed to mRNA and then translated into protein
What are the steps of a microarray?
- 1) DNA sequences are printed onto a slide
- 2) mRNA isolated from normal and experimental cells
- 3) synthesize labeled cDNA from ea mRNA via reverse transcriptase
- 4) Hybridize labeled cDNA's
- 5) rinse unbound labeled cDNA's
- 6)observe resulting colors to identify gene expression
What causes toxic shock, scarlet fever?
What are the general properties of Enterobacteriaceae?
- gram -
- facultative anaerobes bacilli
- non spore forming
- transmitted by fecal-oral route
What are the four types of E. coli?
- Enteropathogenic E. coli
- Enterotoxigenic E. coli
- Enteroinvasive E. coli
- Enterohemmorhagic E. coli
Enteropathogenic E. coli
- infant diarrhea
- fever, vomiting, nausea
Enterotoxigenic E. coli
- mild to severe diarrhea
- travelers diarrhea
- heat stable
Enteroinvasive E. coli
dysentery (bloody diarrhea)
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
- usually sero type O157:H7
- bloody large volume diarrhea
- can get into bloodstream
- -all cause dysentary
- -only a few needed to cause disease (200)
- -resistant to stomach acid
- -Shiga toxin = neuro toxin
- -transmitted by contaminated food
- -usually self limiting
- -sever = typhoid fever
- -rapid urease positive
- -along w/ Klebsiella and Serratia primary cause of sepsis from contaminated IV fluids
- -can multiply in glucose
- -hands of hospital personal = primary mode of transmission
- -red pigment at room temperature
- -non motile
- -hospital acquired
- -equipment and contaminated IV fluids/medication