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What is the nervous system for?
What types of communication are there?
Spine and brain
What are nerve impulses?
What is plasticity?
The ability to change (quick or slow)
What are the compnents of the nervous system?
- Sensory receptors
- Motor units
- Exhite or inhibit muscles
What are sensory receptors?
What are motor units?
Motor neuron that all muscles inervate
What are nerves?
Impulses that stimulate movement
What is synapses?
Neurotransmitters move to receptors
What is afferent?
Towards the brain
What is efferent?
Away from the brain
What is the structure of neurons?
- Cell Body
- Terminal Fibers
- Axon Hillcock
- Alpha Motor Neurons
- Gamma Motor Neurons
- Glial Cells
What is a Dendrite?
Connect with and receive information from other neurons
What are axons?
Sending information away through neurons to other neurons
What are alpha motor neurons?
- Located in the spine
- Long axons
- Many dendritic branches
- innervate many skeletalmuscle fibers
What are Gamma Motor Neurons?
- Located in the spinal cord- don't communicate with muscle
What are interneurons?
- The space between
- Connect multiple neurons
What are glial cells?
- Provide metabolic and immunological support for neurons
- Very important for illness
What is myelin?
- Fatty tissue surrounding neuron
- Fast impulse
- Transmit faster
What is a synapse?
- Space between
- post synaptic nerve
- Presynaptic nerve
- Gap between pre and post is synaptic cleft
- Neurotransmitter- Excitatory response or inhibitory response- allows muscle to move
What does the visual system consist of?
- Very complex set of neural processes
- Light comes in through retina
- Bounces off of rods and cones (photoreceptors
- Send off nerve impulses to brain via optic nerve
- Midbrain then to visual cortex
- Then 'you see what you see'
- optic nerve and midbrain is how and why you see it
What is the kinaeshetic system?
- Muscle spindles
- Only in large groups
- Provide nervous system with information about the rate of stretch
- Intrafusal/ Extrafusal (inside/outside)
- Cutaneous Receptors and join receptors
What is intrafusal/ extrafusal?
- Golgi tendon organs (gto)- Sensory receptors located within the tendons, sensitive to the amount of tension
- Fire maximally when muscle is at it's shortest length
- Provide sensory feedback to spinal cord
- Protect against dangerously high tension
What are the motor control functions of the spinal cord?
- Higher level coordination the brain is involved
- Routine functions are handled in the spinal cord
- The brain and spinal cord have to interact
What are the spinal cord functions?
- Carry info to and from the brain
- Support reflexes at the local level
- Size of an adults little finger
- Runs from the base of spine to base of skull
- Ends at T4
- 31 spinal nerves
- Anterior (efferent or motor) and dorsal (afferent or sensory) nerve root
What are spinal reflexes?
- 4 basic neve units are needed to make a reflex arc- sensory receptors, afferent and efferent neuron, and an effector
- Time it takes for a reflex is measure fromthe time of stimulation to the time a response can be measured (reaction time drills)
- The more interneurons you have, the longer it takes (travel and communication)
What is the stretch reflex?
Myotatic reflex- muscle stretching reflex (patellar tendon, achilles tendon)
What is the flexion reflex?
- Touch a hot stove
- Reciprocal inhibition- agonist and antagonist muscles are NOT going to contract together (crossed extensor reflex)
- Entensor thrust reflex
- Spinal reflex- gait control
What is crossed extensor reflex?
Other limb flexes too ( what the body does to 1 side, its going to do to the other too)
What does reciprocal inhibition help with?
- Crossed extensor reflex
- Helps with postural stability, and if neccessary to push away from a painful stimulus
What are the motor control functions of the brain?
- Motor cortex in the frontal lobe of cerebellum (on the brain stem)
- Basal Ganglia- inner layers of cerebrum
- Brain stem
- 3 parts of the brain- cerebrum, pons, midbrain
- Corpus collosum
- Pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area
- 2 ways the motor cortex communicates with muscles
- Damage to the motor cortex= loss of fine motor control
- Damage to premotor cortex= struggle with movement, planning and selection, especially for gross movements involving many muscle groups
What are the 2 ways the motor cortex communicates with muscles?
- Pyramideal tract- connect or synapse directly, with as few interneurons as possible, alpha motors, excitatory (move neurons faster)- damage to tract leads to paralysis of contralateral movements
- Extrapyramidieal tract- allows nerve impulses from the motor cortex to the SC via the cerebellum, thalamus, and brain stem- damage can result in spasticity
What is contrallatoral movement?
To be able to do it on both sides
What is fine motor control?
Writing, picking up things
What is the purpose of the brain stem and basal ganglia?
- Recieves input from the cerebral cortex and the brain stem
- send outputs to thalamus and brain stem
- Parkinson's disease effects the area of the brain- decreases dopamine (motor deficiencies)
- Huntington's disease- hereditary degenerative didease that causes degeneration of the dendrites
What is dopamine?
- Assists in carrying nerve impulses from one nucleus to another
- Neurotransmitters bind to other neurotransmitters
What is the purpose of the brain stem?
- Recieve inputs from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and sensory systems
- Process all thsi and sends nerve impulses to the right place
- Helps control muscle tone and posture
- Righting reflexes
- Tonic reflexes
- Any damage to pns and medulla disrupts control of voluntary movements and endangers control of vital psychological systems
What are righting reflexes?
Maintain the orientation of the body with respect to gravity
What are tonic reflexes?
Maintain the position of one body part (balance neck on shoulders)
What are the key properties to motor control?
- Degrees of freedom
- Motor equivalence
- Serial order
- Perceptual-motor integration
- Skill Acquistion
What are degrees of freedom?
Brain and nervous system-skilled movement
What is Motor equivalence?
Preform task, produce same outcome in a variety of ways
What is serial order?
- Proper sequence
- Speech, transposition errors, smaller movements
What is perceptual-motor integration?
Producing movements closest to enviromental demands
What is skill acquisition?
- Explaining a skill, storing it, and modifying the task to meet current conditions
- Adaptable and consistant
How do you store information?
- Input- Visual, kinesthetic, vestipular receptors
- Output- Response to the enviroment or movement
- Nervous system is responsible for controlling things and 'hardwiring'
- Pathways and and feeback- constantly processing things and envirmental conditions
What is perception?
- First important process of the brain and CNS based on given input from sensory information
- 1.) detection- is the signal there?
- 2.)Comparision- Are these stimuli the same?
- 3.)Recognition- Identifing that is around
- 4.)Selective attention- Choosing 1 signal over the others
What are some limitations?
- Only 7 items can be stored before making errors
- Can't listen to 2 different conversations or 2 visual inputs
- A good and bad thing
How do you decide?
- Choosing the right process
- Speed and accurecy- fast or accurecy- remeber prior experiences
- Reaction time vs. response time
What is reaction time?
Can not be measured becasue it happens in your head
What is response time?
Can be measured
What is acting?
- Perception (input)
- response selection (decision making)
- Response organization (acting)
- Feedback and the next time
What are the 3 sub processes?
- Movement organization- planning the sequence and timing and selecting proper motor units
- Movement initiation- Transmitting signal to those motor units
- Movement monitoring- Adjusting based on sensory info about the progress
What is loop control?
- Closed loop- movement time and complexity- learnign to do something for the first time
- Open loop- motor programs- body already knows what to do
- Preplannign necessary for movement to take place determines whoch loop it will go through
- Normal rate and sequence- vision, crawling, walking
- Differences in rate development and specific skills
- Deviation from normal gait (speech, reflex, visual, social)- important for addressing problems, screenign, informing makers of theraputic equipment, readiness for new challenges
What are some different studies?
- Cross sectional- many ages
- Longitudinal- large group and study them
What are some changes in motor development?
- First 24 months are critical
- Cephalo-caudal principle (head to tail)
- Proximo-distal principle
- Muscle tone- axial skeletal -low tone (torso and head), limbs (high tone or stiffness- switches over time because of gravity), this process then reverses (maintain posture against gravity, and to increase more efficient voluntary movements of limbs)
What are some normal motor milestones?
- Developing control of posture (holding head up), locomotion (moving within the enviroment), and reaching & grasping & manipulating objects
- Happens in 3 stages- head control, sitting, standing
- More complex movements- running, jumping, riding a bike
What are some critical periods?
- Most children pass through same stages of development and pass the same milestones around the same age (fundamental for survival)- talking, walking, swimming, running
- Enriched enviroments vs. lacking enviroments
What happens in development in older children (2-7 years)?
- Build on what you already mastered (running, jumping, skipping)
- Locomotor vs. nonlocomotor (kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, shooting a basketball)
What happens to the motor control in older adults?
- Balance and posture
- walking patterns
- Complex motor skills
What happens during the CNS development?
- Controlled by genetic factors
- Prenatal- formation of nerve cells
- Postnatal- Branching and insulation of dendrites and axons of nerve cells
- Critical period is conception to first year (very valuable period)
- Spinal cord develops from the top down
What is mylenation?
- Surrounding the axons of the nerve cells with a fatty sheath the acts to insulate the nerve impulse conductance ( makes neurons travel faster)- Repetative firing and more resistance to fatigue (brain, spinal cord, legs, lungs)
- Cerebellum and cortex begin mylenation much later
What happens in the visual system?
- Eyes must undergo most of growing prior to birth
- myleination starts at birth of optic nerve
- Visual acuity- poor at birth, developes over time
- Accomodation- adjusting the shape of the lens
- As you age, you must move object further from your eyes to retain focus
What is the kinaestetic and vestibular system?
- Kinaestetic and essential from birth
- Cutaneous receptors (skin)
- Vestibular apparatus is formed 2-3 months after birth (ear)
- Peripheral neuropathy
What are some reflex changes?
- Primative reflex- sucking on thumb (nipple)
- Voluntary vs. involuntary control
- Postural reflexes- correcting body posture, staying upright, keeping head up
- Postural and reflexes go together
What is information processing?
- First in, last out
- Slowing of simple reaction time (neurophysical changes in the CNS)
Why is learning important?
- The change in the underlying control processes that is responsible for the relatively permanent improvements in performance that accompany practice
- Can't measure the learning process
What are some studies done of motor learning?
- Expert performers
- Effectiveness of feedback on skill learning
- Transfer of skill to another setting (soccer and football)
- Retention of skills over time
- Relearning skills after traumas
What is skilled?
- Fast and accurate
- consistance yet adaptable
- Maximum effectiveness with minimum attention to effort
What is nonskilled?
- Picking right options
- Reading the situation
- Being adaptable
- Moving in a smooth manner
- Doing things automatically
What is stage 1 in motor acquistion?
- Verbal- cognitive phase
- movement task to be learned is completely new to the person
- trying to understand what needs to be done to gain skill
- Cognition and verbal instructions are needed
- reshape old habits into new patterns (soccer player learing to kick a football
- Most important feedback
What is the second stage in motor aquistion?
- Associative phase
- Performance is much more consistant as the learner settles on a single stategy or approach to the task
- Fine tuning the new skill (adjust and adapt to changes)
- Continuation of skill development (building on what you already know- pre-recs for class)
- Walking to running
What is the third stage in motor acquisition?
- Autonomous phase
- Skill appears to be automatic
- Little attention is paid in task
- consistant and accurate
Damage to neurons
- May become hypersensitive
- Previouslu silent may become active
- Injures axons may regenerate
- Collateral axons may branch out to support damaged connections
- The younger= more effective
What is blocked practice?
Exact same task with same materials
What is random practice?
What is explicit learning?
Learning that occurs consciously and deliberatly with the concurrent acquistion of verbalizable knowledge
What is implicit learning?
Learning that occurs without conscious awareness and without the concurrent acquistion of verbalizable knowledge
What is readiness?
Age that you are ready to learn the task at hand