Reciprocal inhibition- agonist and antagonist muscles are NOT going to contract together (crossed extensor reflex)
Entensor thrust reflex
Spinal reflex- gait control
What is crossed extensor reflex?
Other limb flexes too ( what the body does to 1 side, its going to do to the other too)
What does reciprocal inhibition help with?
Crossed extensor reflex
Helps with postural stability, and if neccessary to push away from a painful stimulus
What are the motor control functions of the brain?
Motor cortex in the frontal lobe of cerebellum (on the brain stem)
Basal Ganglia- inner layers of cerebrum
3 parts of the brain- cerebrum, pons, midbrain
Pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area
2 ways the motor cortex communicates with muscles
Damage to the motor cortex= loss of fine motor control
Damage to premotor cortex= struggle with movement, planning and selection, especially for gross movements involving many muscle groups
What are the 2 ways the motor cortex communicates with muscles?
Pyramideal tract- connect or synapse directly, with as few interneurons as possible, alpha motors, excitatory (move neurons faster)- damage to tract leads to paralysis of contralateral movements
Extrapyramidieal tract- allows nerve impulses from the motor cortex to the SC via the cerebellum, thalamus, and brain stem- damage can result in spasticity
What is contrallatoral movement?
To be able to do it on both sides
What is fine motor control?
Writing, picking up things
What is the purpose of the brain stem and basal ganglia?
Recieves input from the cerebral cortex and the brain stem
send outputs to thalamus and brain stem
Parkinson's disease effects the area of the brain- decreases dopamine (motor deficiencies)
Huntington's disease- hereditary degenerative didease that causes degeneration of the dendrites
What is dopamine?
Assists in carrying nerve impulses from one nucleus to another
Neurotransmitters bind to other neurotransmitters
What is the purpose of the brain stem?
Recieve inputs from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and sensory systems
Process all thsi and sends nerve impulses to the right place
Helps control muscle tone and posture
Any damage to pns and medulla disrupts control of voluntary movements and endangers control of vital psychological systems
What are righting reflexes?
Maintain the orientation of the body with respect to gravity
What are tonic reflexes?
Maintain the position of one body part (balance neck on shoulders)
What are the key properties to motor control?
Degrees of freedom
What are degrees of freedom?
Brain and nervous system-skilled movement
What is Motor equivalence?
Preform task, produce same outcome in a variety of ways
What is serial order?
Speech, transposition errors, smaller movements
What is perceptual-motor integration?
Producing movements closest to enviromental demands
What is skill acquisition?
Explaining a skill, storing it, and modifying the task to meet current conditions
Adaptable and consistant
How do you store information?
Input- Visual, kinesthetic, vestipular receptors
Output- Response to the enviroment or movement
Nervous system is responsible for controlling things and 'hardwiring'
Pathways and and feeback- constantly processing things and envirmental conditions
What is perception?
First important process of the brain and CNS based on given input from sensory information
1.) detection- is the signal there?
2.)Comparision- Are these stimuli the same?
3.)Recognition- Identifing that is around
4.)Selective attention- Choosing 1 signal over the others
What are some limitations?
Only 7 items can be stored before making errors
Can't listen to 2 different conversations or 2 visual inputs
A good and bad thing
How do you decide?
Choosing the right process
Speed and accurecy- fast or accurecy- remeber prior experiences
Reaction time vs. response time
What is reaction time?
Can not be measured becasue it happens in your head
What is response time?
Can be measured
What is acting?
response selection (decision making)
Response organization (acting)
Feedback and the next time
What are the 3 sub processes?
Movement organization- planning the sequence and timing and selecting proper motor units
Movement initiation- Transmitting signal to those motor units
Movement monitoring- Adjusting based on sensory info about the progress
What is loop control?
Closed loop- movement time and complexity- learnign to do something for the first time
Open loop- motor programs- body already knows what to do
Preplannign necessary for movement to take place determines whoch loop it will go through
Normal rate and sequence- vision, crawling, walking
Differences in rate development and specific skills
Deviation from normal gait (speech, reflex, visual, social)- important for addressing problems, screenign, informing makers of theraputic equipment, readiness for new challenges
What are some different studies?
Cross sectional- many ages
Longitudinal- large group and study them
What are some changes in motor development?
First 24 months are critical
Cephalo-caudal principle (head to tail)
Muscle tone- axial skeletal -low tone (torso and head), limbs (high tone or stiffness- switches over time because of gravity), this process then reverses (maintain posture against gravity, and to increase more efficient voluntary movements of limbs)
What are some normal motor milestones?
Developing control of posture (holding head up), locomotion (moving within the enviroment), and reaching & grasping & manipulating objects
Happens in 3 stages- head control, sitting, standing
More complex movements- running, jumping, riding a bike
What are some critical periods?
Most children pass through same stages of development and pass the same milestones around the same age (fundamental for survival)- talking, walking, swimming, running
Enriched enviroments vs. lacking enviroments
What happens in development in older children (2-7 years)?
Build on what you already mastered (running, jumping, skipping)
Locomotor vs. nonlocomotor (kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, shooting a basketball)
What happens to the motor control in older adults?
Balance and posture
Complex motor skills
What happens during the CNS development?
Controlled by genetic factors
Prenatal- formation of nerve cells
Postnatal- Branching and insulation of dendrites and axons of nerve cells
Critical period is conception to first year (very valuable period)
Spinal cord develops from the top down
What is mylenation?
Surrounding the axons of the nerve cells with a fatty sheath the acts to insulate the nerve impulse conductance ( makes neurons travel faster)- Repetative firing and more resistance to fatigue (brain, spinal cord, legs, lungs)
Cerebellum and cortex begin mylenation much later
What happens in the visual system?
Eyes must undergo most of growing prior to birth
myleination starts at birth of optic nerve
Visual acuity- poor at birth, developes over time
Accomodation- adjusting the shape of the lens
As you age, you must move object further from your eyes to retain focus
What is the kinaestetic and vestibular system?
Kinaestetic and essential from birth
Cutaneous receptors (skin)
Vestibular apparatus is formed 2-3 months after birth (ear)
What are some reflex changes?
Primative reflex- sucking on thumb (nipple)
Voluntary vs. involuntary control
Postural reflexes- correcting body posture, staying upright, keeping head up
Postural and reflexes go together
What is information processing?
First in, last out
Slowing of simple reaction time (neurophysical changes in the CNS)
Why is learning important?
The change in the underlying control processes that is responsible for the relatively permanent improvements in performance that accompany practice
Can't measure the learning process
What are some studies done of motor learning?
Effectiveness of feedback on skill learning
Transfer of skill to another setting (soccer and football)
Retention of skills over time
Relearning skills after traumas
What is skilled?
Fast and accurate
consistance yet adaptable
Maximum effectiveness with minimum attention to effort
What is nonskilled?
Picking right options
Reading the situation
Moving in a smooth manner
Doing things automatically
What is stage 1 in motor acquistion?
Verbal- cognitive phase
movement task to be learned is completely new to the person
trying to understand what needs to be done to gain skill
Cognition and verbal instructions are needed
reshape old habits into new patterns (soccer player learing to kick a football
Most important feedback
What is the second stage in motor aquistion?
Performance is much more consistant as the learner settles on a single stategy or approach to the task
Fine tuning the new skill (adjust and adapt to changes)
Continuation of skill development (building on what you already know- pre-recs for class)
Walking to running
What is the third stage in motor acquisition?
Skill appears to be automatic
Little attention is paid in task
consistant and accurate
Damage to neurons
May become hypersensitive
Previouslu silent may become active
Injures axons may regenerate
Collateral axons may branch out to support damaged connections
The younger= more effective
What is blocked practice?
Exact same task with same materials
What is random practice?
What is explicit learning?
Learning that occurs consciously and deliberatly with the concurrent acquistion of verbalizable knowledge
What is implicit learning?
Learning that occurs without conscious awareness and without the concurrent acquistion of verbalizable knowledge