Science Test

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flashcardsss
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50756
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Science Test
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2010-12-16 11:06:27
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Final2
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Final 2
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  1. Chemical Property
    a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions
  2. Physical Property
    a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
  3. Chemical Change
    a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
  4. Physical Change
    a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
  5. Malleability
    the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet
  6. Ductility
    the ability of a substance to be hammered thin or drawn out into a wire
  7. Matter
    anything that has mass and takes up space
  8. Flammability
    ability to catch fire
  9. Thermal Conductivity
    the rate at which a substance transfers thermal energy
  10. solubility
    the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure.
  11. volume
    a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
  12. Mass
    a measure of the amount of matter in an object.
  13. Density
    the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; commonly expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases
  14. Temperature
    • a measure of how hot (or cold) something is.
    • a measure of how fast particles are moving.
  15. Kenetic Theory
    rapidly moving particles constantly collide with each other and with the walls of the container.
  16. Melting point
    the temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid
  17. Boiling Point
    • the temperature and pressure at which a liquid and a gas are in equilibrium
    • evaporation is happening throughout the liquid
  18. Sublimation
    • the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
    • example: dry ice
  19. Evaporation
    the change of state from a liquid to a gas
  20. Condensation
    the change of state from a gas to a liquid
  21. Melting
    the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat or changing pressure
  22. Freezing
    the change of state in which a liquid becomes a solid as heat is removed
  23. Vaporization
    the change of state from a liquid into a gas
  24. Boyles Law
    (P1)(V1)=(P2)(V2)
  25. Charles's Law
    • V1=V2
    • T1=T2
  26. Law of Conservation of Mass
    the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
  27. Reactivity
    the capacity of a substance to combine chemically with another substance
  28. Oxidation
    a reaction that removes one or more electrons from a substance such that the substance's valence or oxidation state increases; in geology, the process by which a metallic element combines with oxygen
  29. Electrolysis
    the process in which an electric current is used to produce a chemical reaction, such as the decomposition of water
  30. Endothermic
    • heat is absorbed from the environment
    • gain of energy
  31. Exothermic
    • system releases heat into the environment
    • loss of heat
  32. Solid
    the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
  33. Liquid
    the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
  34. Gas
    a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
  35. Plasma
    • a state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized;
    • it consists of free-moving ions and electrons
    • it can conduct electricity
  36. States of Matter
    the physical forms of matter, which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
  37. Crystaline Solid
    • Orderly three-dimentional arrangement of atoms or molecules
    • ex. quarts, crystals, ice.
  38. Amorphous Solid
    • Atoms that are in no particular order
    • ex. glass, rubber
  39. Cohesion
    the force that holds molecules of a single material together
  40. Surface Tension
    the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
  41. Viscosity
    the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow

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