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a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions
a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet
the ability of a substance to be hammered thin or drawn out into a wire
anything that has mass and takes up space
ability to catch fire
the rate at which a substance transfers thermal energy
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure.
a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
a measure of the amount of matter in an object.
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; commonly expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases
- a measure of how hot (or cold) something is.
- a measure of how fast particles are moving.
rapidly moving particles constantly collide with each other and with the walls of the container.
the temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid
- the temperature and pressure at which a liquid and a gas are in equilibrium
- evaporation is happening throughout the liquid
- the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
- example: dry ice
the change of state from a liquid to a gas
the change of state from a gas to a liquid
the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat or changing pressure
the change of state in which a liquid becomes a solid as heat is removed
the change of state from a liquid into a gas
Law of Conservation of Mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
the capacity of a substance to combine chemically with another substance
a reaction that removes one or more electrons from a substance such that the substance's valence or oxidation state increases; in geology, the process by which a metallic element combines with oxygen
the process in which an electric current is used to produce a chemical reaction, such as the decomposition of water
- heat is absorbed from the environment
- gain of energy
- system releases heat into the environment
- loss of heat
the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
- a state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized;
- it consists of free-moving ions and electrons
- it can conduct electricity
States of Matter
the physical forms of matter, which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
- Orderly three-dimentional arrangement of atoms or molecules
- ex. quarts, crystals, ice.
- Atoms that are in no particular order
- ex. glass, rubber
the force that holds molecules of a single material together
the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
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