PBD 4 Alzheimers

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  1. Who was the first alzheimers patient?
    August D, 51 years old
  2. T/F alzheimers is considered a common form of dementia.
    False, Rare (1890s-1980s)
  3. What is the most commmon neuro degenerative disease?
    Alzheimers
  4. Who is more likely to get alzheimers (gender wise)
    Women
  5. Florida has _#_ of dementia patients as of 2010
    450,000
  6. Sporadic AD represents what percent of cases. When is its onset age normally?
    • 90%
    • 65 y/o
  7. T/F familial AD is the most common case.
    False, 10%, age of onset is before 65 and is caused by APP, PS1, and PS2 genes.
  8. Three clinical stages of AD
    • Mild, moderate, and severe.
    • Daily activities not interfered
    • Daily activities significantly affected
    • Require total care
  9. Early stage AD shows a degeneration of _____ neurons. This results in what?
    • Hippocampal
    • short term memory loss
  10. Mid stage AD shows degeneration of ____ lobe and affects what?
    • Frontal lobe
    • affects judgement, safety awareness, planning and other complex thinking
  11. late stage AD neurogeneration spreads ______.
    EVERYWHERE
  12. Clinical tests to diagnose AD are
    • Mini mental state exam
    • CT, MRI, PET
    • and tests that can affect memory/cognition
  13. New clinical diagnosis for AD
    Imaging for amyloid plagques and tangles in brain
  14. T/F definitive diagnosis for AD can be done while someone is conscious.
    False, POST MORTEM!

    Cortical atrophy, ventricular dilation, amyloid plaques, tangles
  15. AD brains have _____ gyrus and a ____ sulcus. They also have a dilated _____.
    • Narrowed, widened
    • Ventricle
  16. Amyloid plaques are ___-cellular whereas neurofibrillary tangles are ____-cellular
    Extra, intra
  17. The core of amyloid plaques is made up of
    beta Amyloid peptides
  18. other components of amyloid plaques include
    • B-amyloid proteins
    • Apolipoprotein E
    • protease inhibitors
    • complement proteins
    • Metal irons
  19. APP stands for __ ___ ___. What are its 3 major variants? Where is the gene located?
    • Amyloid precurson protein
    • APP695, 751, and 770
    • Chromosome 21
  20. Functions of APP
    • Cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction
    • Cell growth
    • synaptic plasticity
    • cell surfact receptor
  21. T/F sAPP is soluble and does not form aggregates.
    True
  22. alpha secretase cleavage causes formation of sAPP alpha into the ______ space
    extracellular
  23. sAPPa regulates ____ levels and stimulates _____ _____.
    • Calcium
    • Signal transduction
  24. Intracellular domain of sAPPa acts as adaptor protein for _-protein.
    G-protein
  25. gamma secretase occurs ____ the membrane
    inside
  26. AB 1-40 and 1-42 form ____ ____.
    insoluble fibrils
  27. T/F AB 1-42 is more soluble than AB 1-40
    False, flipped
  28. T/F amyloid fibrils act as centers for deposition by other proteins.
    True
  29. AB peptides activate protein phosphorylation through this protein
    Tau
  30. T/F AB peptides are toxic to neurons
    True, direct effect
  31. T/F release of A-beta peptides are abnormal physiological events
    False, normal
  32. mutations cause an (increase/decrease) of AB (1-40/42)
    Increase
  33. Less sufficient alpha secretase causes an (increase/decrease) of AB (1-40/42)
    increase
  34. KNOW SLIDE 42!
    slide 42, or what?
  35. Presenilins 1 and 2 are membane proteins with ____ trans-membrane domains
    multiple
  36. Familial mutations is PS1 and PS2 increase gamme secretase activity leading to
    increased AB generation
  37. PS1 mutations are responsible for _%_ of early onset AD
    70%
  38. PS2 mutations make up for _%_ of early onset AD
    5%
  39. APP with downs syndrome has an (increased/decreased) APP expression which creates (more/less) AB1-40/42 and responsible for ____ formation at age 12.
    • Increased
    • More
    • Plaque
  40. Neurofibrillary tangles have microtubules with a diameter of __nm-______nm
    200-25,000
  41. Microtubule associated proteins include
    • kinesisns
    • dyneins
    • and tau
  42. Tau is found on chromosome __, it contains _ isoforms. It is important in proper neuronal axonal transport.
    • 17
    • 6
  43. Increased phosphorylation of Tau and ubiquitylation causes formation of
    Neurofibrillary tangles
  44. PHF stands for ___ ___ ____ formed by detached ____ molecules.
    • Paired helical filaments
    • Tau
  45. GSK-3B and Cylin dependent kinase 5 are causes of _____ ____.
    Hyperphosphorylating Tau
  46. T/F E4/E4 has the lowest risk for AD
    False, highest
  47. Apolipoprotein E4 is located on what chromosome?
    chromosome 19
  48. Most abundant apolipoprotein is
    E3
  49. T/F ApoE4 does affect APP expression
    False, it does NOT
  50. ApoE4 enhances _______ of AB and decreases _____ of AB.
    • aggregation
    • clearance
  51. Drugs for AD are mainly
    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Card Set Information

Author:
swynocker
ID:
50768
Filename:
PBD 4 Alzheimers
Updated:
2010-11-20 22:09:43
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PBD Alzheimers
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PBD 4 Alzheimers
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