PBD 4 Alzheimers
Card Set Information
PBD 4 Alzheimers
PBD 4 Alzheimers
Who was the first alzheimers patient?
August D, 51 years old
T/F alzheimers is considered a common form of dementia.
False, Rare (1890s-1980s)
What is the most commmon neuro degenerative disease?
Who is more likely to get alzheimers (gender wise)
Florida has _#_ of dementia patients as of 2010
Sporadic AD represents what percent of cases. When is its onset age normally?
T/F familial AD is the most common case.
False, 10%, age of onset is before 65 and is caused by APP, PS1, and PS2 genes.
Three clinical stages of AD
Mild, moderate, and severe.
Daily activities not interfered
Daily activities significantly affected
Require total care
Early stage AD shows a degeneration of _____ neurons. This results in what?
short term memory loss
Mid stage AD shows degeneration of ____ lobe and affects what?
affects judgement, safety awareness, planning and other complex thinking
late stage AD neurogeneration spreads ______.
Clinical tests to diagnose AD are
Mini mental state exam
CT, MRI, PET
and tests that can affect memory/cognition
New clinical diagnosis for AD
Imaging for amyloid plagques and tangles in brain
T/F definitive diagnosis for AD can be done while someone is conscious.
False, POST MORTEM!
Cortical atrophy, ventricular dilation, amyloid plaques, tangles
AD brains have _____ gyrus and a ____ sulcus. They also have a dilated _____.
Amyloid plaques are ___-cellular whereas neurofibrillary tangles are ____-cellular
The core of amyloid plaques is made up of
beta Amyloid peptides
other components of amyloid plaques include
APP stands for __ ___ ___. What are its 3 major variants? Where is the gene located?
Amyloid precurson protein
APP695, 751, and 770
Functions of APP
Cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction
cell surfact receptor
T/F sAPP is soluble and does not form aggregates.
alpha secretase cleavage causes formation of sAPP alpha into the ______ space
sAPPa regulates ____ levels and stimulates _____ _____.
Intracellular domain of sAPPa acts as adaptor protein for _-protein.
gamma secretase occurs ____ the membrane
AB 1-40 and 1-42 form ____ ____.
T/F AB 1-42 is more soluble than AB 1-40
T/F amyloid fibrils act as centers for deposition by other proteins.
AB peptides activate protein phosphorylation through this protein
T/F AB peptides are toxic to neurons
True, direct effect
T/F release of A-beta peptides are abnormal physiological events
mutations cause an (increase/decrease) of AB (1-40/42)
Less sufficient alpha secretase causes an (increase/decrease) of AB (1-40/42)
KNOW SLIDE 42!
slide 42, or what?
Presenilins 1 and 2 are membane proteins with ____ trans-membrane domains
Familial mutations is PS1 and PS2 increase gamme secretase activity leading to
increased AB generation
PS1 mutations are responsible for _%_ of early onset AD
PS2 mutations make up for _%_ of early onset AD
APP with downs syndrome has an (increased/decreased) APP expression which creates (more/less) AB1-40/42 and responsible for ____ formation at age 12.
Neurofibrillary tangles have microtubules with a diameter of __nm-______nm
Microtubule associated proteins include
Tau is found on chromosome __, it contains _ isoforms. It is important in proper neuronal axonal transport.
Increased phosphorylation of Tau and ubiquitylation causes formation of
PHF stands for ___ ___ ____ formed by detached ____ molecules.
Paired helical filaments
GSK-3B and Cylin dependent kinase 5 are causes of _____ ____.
T/F E4/E4 has the lowest risk for AD
Apolipoprotein E4 is located on what chromosome?
Most abundant apolipoprotein is
T/F ApoE4 does affect APP expression
False, it does NOT
ApoE4 enhances _______ of AB and decreases _____ of AB.
Drugs for AD are mainly