Acidified Potassium Dichromate H+/Cr2O72- or Acidified Potassium Permangenate H+/MnO4-.
What colour does an alcohol turn acidified potassium permangenate?
From purple to colourless beacuse Mn2+ ions are formed which are colourless.
What colour does an alcohol turn acidified dichromate?
From orange to green because Cr3+ ions are formed which are green.
What are the physical properties of low mass alcohols?
They are liquids which are fully miscible in water.
What are primary alcohols oxidised to?
How do you name an ester?
Break it after the COO and name the alkane part ie ethyl, methyl. Then name the acid and add -oate to the end.
What are the physical properties for Carboxylic acids?
Low mass are miscible in water. High mass are not. Strong smelling.
Alcohols and Carboxylic acids react to form?
An Ester and water
Carboxylic acids react with a solution and fizzing is observed. What is the name of the solution?
Sodium Carbonate Solution
What special conditions are needed whn reacting an alcohol and carboxylic acid?
An acid catalyst such as a drop of concentrated sulfuric acid.
Since the process of forming an ester is an equilibrium, what is the name of the backwards process?
Hydrolosis which means splitting by water. Adding an ester to water produces the alcohol and acid.
What is hydrolosis catalysed by?
Either acid or base
What is glycerol?
What is a triglyceride?
When glycerol reacts with carboxylic acids and forms three ester linkages. The result is a triglyceride. Fats and Oils are triglycerides.
What is saponification?
When the ester links in fats or oils are hydrolysed by sodium hydroxide solution. The products are glycerol and Sodium salt of the fatty acid which is soap. The OH from NaOH is part of the glycerol and the Na attaches to the O with the single bond.
Define Saturated and unsaturated:
Saturated: No more atoms can join the chain.
Unsaturated: More atoms can join the chain if a c=c or triple bond is broken.
Alkanes burn with a ...............
Alkenes burn with a .........
What are substitution reactions?
One atom from a halogen molecule (ie Br2) is substituted with a hydrogen atom in an alkane. The other halogen atom joins with the hydrogen forming a hydrogen halide.
What is an addition reaction? What types are there?
An addition reaction incvolves breaking the double/ triple bonds and adding atoms to the chain. Hydrogenation involves breaking the double/triple bond to add hydrogen atoms, halogenation involves breaking the bonds to add halogen atoms.
What is a polymer? How is a polymer made?
When many monomers join together to form a polymer. A polymer is an alkene that joins to other alkenes by breaking the bonds.
What happens if bromine water is added to an alkane and an alkene?
The alkane will not decolourise the brown solution instantly as a catalyst needs to be present such as UV light.
The alkene will decolourise it instantly.
How do you identify saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons using acidified potassium permangenate?
Alkenes undergo an oxidation reaction and form a diol. They also form Mn2+ ions which are colourless and turn the purple solution colourless.
Alkanesform two layers.
In an addition reaction with an asymmetric alkene and a substance such as HCl what rule is applied?
The rich gets richer. That is how you determine which C atom to put the H atom from HCl on to. This is the major product and is made in the greater amount. The minor product is when the Hydrogen goes to the C with the least C atoms. This is made in the less amount.