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2010-11-21 03:46:55
virus bio gr

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  1. dmitri iwanowski found what?
    juice from tabacco leaves caused infections on other tabacco plants
  2. martinus beijerinck realized what?
    tiny particles in the juice caused the infection named particle virus which means poison
  3. definition of viruse
    non-cellular particle made of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells
  4. structure of viruse, what components?
    • 1.core of nucleic acide (DNA or RNA)
    • 2.protein coat (capsid) that surrounds nucleic acid
  5. bacteriophage is?
    virus that infects bacteria
  6. diversity in structure, shapes:
    rode, cubes, helix
  7. diversity in structure, sizes:
    10-300nm(nanometer) cant see a virus unless you use SEM or TEM microscope
  8. virus only infect:
    specific host, eg plan animal mammal bird
  9. viruses living characteristics
    • genetic material
    • replcate (reproduce)
    • evolve (mutate)
  10. non living viruse characteristics
    • non-cellular
    • requires a host
    • doesnt use energy (ATP)
  11. viral infections when:
    viruses cause infections by injecting DNA/RNA into host
  12. viral infections 4 general phases
    • infection
    • growth
    • replication
    • lysis
  13. infection phase
    • attaches to host cell using tail fibres
    • inserts DNA into cell
  14. growth phase
    • host RNA polymerase makes MRNA("copy") from viral DNA
    • MRNA is going to take over host cell
  15. repication phase
    virus uses host machienery(ribsomes, gongi etc) to construct DNA(nucleic acid) and capsids (protein)
  16. lysis phase
    • host cell beomes filled with new viruses bursts(lyse)
    • spreads viruses to neighbouring cells, can happen in 25 minuets
  17. another way lysogenic infection (2)
    • infection phase=same as lytic
    • growth phase is viral DNA incorporated with host DNA
    • is a prophage, remains dormat for "long" time, ie HIV
    • each time host cell replicates the viral DNA also replicates
  18. prokaryotic cells
    • pro=frist
    • kingdom monera, unicellular, 1-10um. yes cell walls, no membrane bound, no nucleus, no chloroplasts
  19. eukaryotic cells
    • eu=true
    • plante animalia fungi protista, uni or multi, 10-100um(micro-meter) cell walls for plants and fugi, yes membrane bound, yes nuclus, chloroplasts in plants and protists
  20. classification of moneras
    all are prokaryotic and all are bacteri. devides into 4 plyla
  21. def of eubacteria
    true bacteria, withininclude all bacteria cept for archaebacteria
  22. def of cyanobacteria
    phylum of bacteria, gets energy from photosynthesis(single cell organisms)
  23. def of archaebacteria
    group of single-celled microrganisms, have no cell nucleus or membrane bound
  24. def of prochlorobacteria
    photosynthetic organism
  25. binary fission (asex)
    parent cell seperates to 2 daughter cells
  26. conjugation (sex)
    two cells get together and become one
  27. surface area to volume ratio
  28. advantages of viruses
    genetic research, gene therapy, genetic engineering
  29. disadvantages of viruses
    disease, cancer
  30. preventing / treating viral infections
    good hygiene, healthy lifestyle (diet exercise)
  31. non specific defenses
    • skin: oil and sweat provides acidic environment
    • cilia/mucus: traps virus
    • secretion: destroy viruses
    • phagocytes: viruses leading to inflammation and fever
    • interferon: infected cell produce protein and interferes with virus and slows it
  32. specific defenses
    • antibodies/immune response: produced that bind to and inactivate virus (antigen)
    • immunity: active:injection of vaccine to produce antibodies passive: injection of antibodies proced in another animal
    • cells mediated immunity: killer t-cells attack antigen-bearing cells and destroys them
  33. cell shapes:
    rod, sphere, spiral
  34. bacterial movement
    • porpelled by flagella
    • lash snake =spiral forward
    • glide on slimelike material
    • cessile (no movement)
  35. energy for bacteria 2 major ways (self)
    • autotrophs a) phototrophic autotrophs-obtain energy from sun (like plants)
    • b) chemotrophic autotrophs-live in harsh enviro, obtain energy from inortganic molecules (hydrogen sulfige, nitrites etc)
  36. energy for bacteria 2 major ways (other)
    • heterotrophs a)chemotrophic heterotrophs- break down organic molecules, most bacteria and animals
    • b) phototrophic heterotrophs-photosynthetic but also needs organic compounds
  37. cell shape rod
    gram positive, produce endopores
  38. cell shape sphere
    cuckus, gros in colonies of 2 cells, non pathogenic, clumps of clustures
  39. cell shape spiral
    posseses bipolar tufts of flagella
  40. gram-positive bacteria:
    take up crystal violit and appear purple
  41. gram-negative bacteria:
    take up satarine, appear red/pink, mure toxic, mure resistant to antibiotics
  42. endospore:
    dormat form of bacteria when they are inactive
  43. agar:
    source of food, place/habitate to live
  44. bacterial colony
    mass of microrganismes all orginate from single parent cell. all genetically identical (clones)
  45. bacteria repiration
    needs constant supply of energy, involves O2 and fermentation no O2
  46. obligate aerobes
    require constant supply of O2
  47. obligate anaerobes
    must live in absence of o2, found in soil produces toxis, canned food
  48. facultative anaerobes
    not need o2 to live but not die without the presence of o2