gram positive

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nloput
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50860
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gram positive
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2010-11-28 04:18:41
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micro
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micro 4
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  1. all cocci have what morphology?
    nonmotile, no spores and gram positive
  2. Staph?
    means grapes and are catalase positive.
  3. staphylococcus aureus
    1. morphology
    2.virulence factors?
    3.enzymes?
    • 1. Gram +
    • requires simple media
    • catalase +
    • can tolerate high salt
    • 2. •Structural
    • –Protein A
    • »All over the surface of the organisms
    • »Binds to the Fc region of antibodies
    • »Prevents phagocytosis
    • »Chemotactic factors—leads to pus
    • –Capsules
    • »Prevent phagocytosis non-sufficient contact between phagocyte and bacteria
    • »Opsonins negate this
    • •Enzymes
    • –Coagulase »Cause coagulation of the blood»Reacts with fibrinogen. creates clot for them to grow in.
    • –Hyaluronidase-hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid. breaks down goo.
    • –Staphylokinase-dissolve the fibrin clot. goo that surround your cell.
    • –Lipases-dissolve lipids-dissolve antibacterial lipids so found on skin so they can break out of the clot.
    • –Beta-lactamase - breaks downs Ab
  4. staphylococcus aureus
    toxins?
    • •Toxins
    • –Exfoliatoxin-causes the skin to slough off
    • –Hemolysin »Cause lysis RBCs
    • »Can also cause the lysis of WBC
    • –Pyrogenic toxins
    • »Produce fever and Rash
    • –Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxins (TSST-1)
    • binds to TCell making them crazy
    • •Enterotoxins
  5. staphylococcus aureus
    initiation of infection?
    host and tissue specificity?
    infections?
    • –Initiation of infection
    • •Through breaks in the skin
    • –wounds, burns, surgery
    • –Host and Tissue Specificity•Humans primarily•No tissue specificity•Most infections are of the skin•Many people are nasal carriers
    • –Infections
    • •Most common-pimples, boils, carbuncles, urinary tract infections and impetigo, scaled skin syndromes
    • •Systemic-diseases usually caused by the spread from a skin infection
    • •Bacteremia-growing in the blood
    • •Endocarditis–Attack the lining of the heart and the valves–Blood pumped from the heart drops–50% of the patients die
    • •Pneumonia–Infection spreads to the lungs–Fills with fluid–Causes them to fill with pus (10% of patients)
    • •Osteomyelitis–Infects the bones–Associated with a high fever
  6. Streptococcus
    • –Strep are divided into serological groups based on antigens
    • •These are called Lancefield serological groups
    • they have different antigen in their bodies
  7. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)
    Morphology?
    Cultural characteristics?
    • •Morphology
    • –Gram +
    • –Catalase negative
    • •Cultural characteristics
    • –Require complex media, all strep like blood agar.
    • –Beta hemolytic
  8. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)
    Virulence Factors?
    • •Virulence Factors
    • –Protein M-this is a membrane bound protein
    • »Is found on the organisms Fimbriae
    • »Stops complement fixation
    • »Stops opsonization
    • –Capsule
    • »Made of Hyaluronic Acid (like our cells so wbc ignore it)
    • –Enzymes
    • »Streptokinase
    • »DNAase
  9. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)
    Toxins?
    Initiation of infection?
    • •Toxins
    • –Pyrogenic toxins-
    • »Produces rash of scarlet fever
    • »Type IV hypersensitivity
    • –Streptolysin
    • »Lysis of RBC, WBC and platelets
  10. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)
    Diseases?
    • •Diseases
    • –Pharyngitis
    • »Strep throat
    • –Scarlet Fever
    • –Pyoderma
    • »Also called impetigo
    • –Erysipelas
    • »spreads to the lymph nodes
    • –Necrotizing Fasciitis
    • »Flesh eating bacteria
    • »Breaks down the fascia
    • »Connective tissue that surrounds the muscle
    • »Done with a toxin
    • »Results in a Toxemia
    • –Rheumatic Fever
    • »A complication of pharyngitis
    • »Autoimmune disorder
    • –Glomerulonephritis
    • »Type III Hypersensitivity
    • »This causes inflammation of the nephrons
    • »Results in high blood pressure and low urine output
    • »Could cause irreversible kidney damage
  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Morphology?
    • •Morphology
    • –Gram positive
    • •cultural characteristics (needs complex media)
    • –Catalase negative
  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Virulence Factors?
    Diseases?
    • –Virulence Factors
    • •Capsular polysaccharide
    • –Antiphagocytic(most important)
    • •Toxins
    • –Pneumolysin
    • »Hemolysin-produces alpha hemolysis on blood
    • »High concentrations can be lethal
    • –Diseases
    • •Leading cause of bacterial pneumonia
    • •Sinusitis-infection in the sinuses with pus
    • •Otitis media-infection in the middle ear with pus
    • •Bacteremia-gets in the blood
    • •Endocarditis-infects the lining of the heart
    • •Pneumococcal meningitis
    • –From sinusitis or otitismedia
    • –Gets into the meninges
    • –Highest rate of death from meningitis
  13. Streptococcus agalactiae
    Morphology?
    • •Morphology
    • –Gram +
    • –cocci
    • –grows in chains
    • –catalase negative
  14. Streptococcus agalactiae
    Diseases?
    • •Diseases
    • –Usually newborns (3 out of 1000)
    • infects babies coming down birth canal
    • –Puerperal fever
    • »Childbirth fever
    • »In women following childbirth
    • –Immunocompromised
    • »Another high risk group
  15. Viridians Streptococcus
    Morphology?
    Diseases?
    • •Morphology
    • –Gram +
    • -Cocci
    • –catalase negative
    • •Normal flora
    • –Mouth
    • –Teeth
    • –GI tract
    • –Pharynx
    • –Genitals
    • –Urinary tract
    • •Diseases
    • –Endocarditis
    • –Dental caries»Cavities
    • –Form biofilms on teeth»Plaque
  16. Streptococcus Mutans Group
    • •Produce organic acids
    • –Decalcify the teeth
    • –Causes tooth decay
    • –High sucrose diets create more acid
    • Live in biofilms
  17. Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
    Morphology?
    Cultural characteristics?
    • –Morphology
    • •Straight rods in short chains
    • •Gram positive
    • –Cultural characteristics
    • •usually strict aerobes
    • •Endospore formers
  18. Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
    • –Infections
    • •Pulmonary Anthrax (inhalation)
    • –Woolsorter’s disease (nickname)
    • –Inhalation of endospores
    • –Caused by inflammation of tissues separating the two lungs
    • –Can lead to hemorrhagic meningitis and then death
    • •Cutaneous Anthrax
    • –Gets in scratches on the skin
    • –Usually found in handlers of live stock
    • »Causes a malignant pustule (neck)
    • »Next can turn to local gangrene
    • »Systemic
    • »Death
    • •Enteric anthrax
    • –Rare
    • –From eating undercooked meat
    • –The symptoms are bloody stool and abdominal pain
    • –Death
  19. Clostridium perfringens
    Virulence factors?
    • •Virulence factors
    • »Necrotizing-destroys tissue
    • »Hemolytic-lysis of RBC
    • »Lethal-causes death
    • »Enterotoxin-food poisoning
  20. Clostridium perfringens
    Diseases?
    Treatments?
    • •Diseases
    • –Gas gangrene
    • »Spores get into tissue where there is little oxygen
    • »Intense pain and swelling to start
    • »This is caused by the tissue and muscle damage
    • »Bacteria spreads to surrounding tissue
    • »Production of a foul smelling gas
    • »Can cause shock, kidney failure followed by death»Incubation 6 to 72 hours after inoculation
    • •Treatments
    • –Removal of foreign material and dead tissue (amputation)
  21. Clostridium tetani (tetnus)
    • –Endospores get in a break in the skin or mucus membranes (no protein coat)
    • Tetanus toxin
    • –Muscles cannot relax
    • toxin binds to neurons that produce inhibitory neurotransmitter.
  22. Clostridium tetani (tetnus)
    Disease?
    • •Disease
    • –Incubation is a few days to a week
    • –Initial signs are tightening of the jaw and neck
    • »Lock jaw
    • –Other signs
    • include spasms, sweating, drooling
    • –Gets worse cannot relax hands and feet
    • –Die because you cannot exhale out
  23. Clostridium botulinum (botox)
    Pathology?
    • •Pathology
    • –Enters the body by way of contaminated food–Ingestion of the toxin
    • can pass through stomach because of protien coat around the toxin.
    • »The toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine
    • –Blocks muscle contraction
    • –Flaccid paralysis- die when you can no longer breathe
    • –Only 30 grams needed to kill everyone in the U.S.
  24. Actinomycetes
    • (Gram +)
    • –Can cause cavities
    • –Can enter breaks in the mucus membranes or skin
    • gets into wounds from dirt.
    • •Actinomycosis
    • •Forms abscesses
  25. Lactobacillus
    • (Gram +)
    • –Rods
    • –Non-spore formers
    • –Found in body as normal flora
    • –Used in food industry
    • •Pickles
    • •Yogurt
    • •Buttermilk
    • •Sauerkraut
  26. clostridia all are?
    • gram +
    • strict anaerobes
    • endospore formers
  27. listeria monoctogenes
    1. morphology
    2. diagnosis
    • 1. small gram +
    • rods
    • gets in monocytes or epithelial cells.
    • uses listerolysin O to get out of phagosome.
    • takes over actin in the cell and makes pseudopodia to push into the cell.
    • 2. most are asymptomatic
    • dangerous for pregnant women, babies ans immunosuppressed.
    • can go to brain
    • can cross the placenta.
    • can cause miscarriage or birth defects
    • found all over the enviroment and in some types of foods.
  28. corynebacterium diphtheria
    1. morphology
    2. virulence
    3. diagnosis
    4. diseases
    • 1. gram +
    • v shaped to pleomorphic
    • 2. diphtheria toxin
    • gets into cell binds to ribosome and stops protein synthesis.
    • 3. most people are asymptomatic
    • if you are not the toxic causes the formation of the pseudomembrane.
    • 4. respiratory
    • -psuedomembrane on the tonsils or up the nose and palate.
    • - cutaneous
    • -toxin can go systemic = death
    • this is found all over the enviroment.
  29. propionibacterium acnes
    causes acne
  30. mycobacterium tuberculosis
    1. morphology
    2. infection
    3. extra
    • 1. gram + with extra thick cell wall so we say acid fast
    • slender rods
    • 2. primary infection
    • starts out with inhalation of bacteria
    • -only needs 10
    • -this is airborne
    • gets phagocytized by macrophages
    • -grows inside then lyses the macs
    • -more macs come and they are lysed
    • -this happens over and over
    • -you have cell mediated response which activates more macs
    • the big mass of macrophages and mycobacterium create a tuberacle.
    • -fibroblast cells put collagen around it
    • -the center dies (caseous necrosis)
    • -some people clear the infection and form the Ghon complex.
    • secondary infection
    • a tubercle that the person has had for years breaks open and spread to the rest of the lungs.
    • disseminated
    • when it spreads all over
    • 3. diagnosis
    • -skin test
    • -extra = acid fast bacillus in sputum
    • treatment
    • -6 months of antibiotic treatment
    • epidemiology
    • -1/3 of the world has it
    • -can live for 8 months on formites
    • -spresd by cramped living conditions
    • -50% of people that get it die
  31. mycobacterium leprae
    1. diseases
    2. diagnosis
    • 1. tuberculoid leprosy
    • -people with good immunity
    • -not contagious
    • -flat sores
    • -lose some hair
    • - might not notice
    • -not progressive
    • lepromatous leprosy
    • -people with bad immunity
    • -very bad lesions
    • -spreads all over
    • -contagious
    • -loss of fingers and toes
    • -all over face and ears
    • 2. diagnosis
    • skin test like TB
  32. mycobacterium avium
    • respiratory diseases
    • found primarily in AIDS patients

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