Card Set Information
Florence Nightingale mid 1800s
English woman studied in Germany with a Protestant order
Nightingale focused on
cleaning up wards and improving ventilation, sanitation, and nutrition, her group of 38 nurses lowered the death rate from 60% to 1%.
Based curriculum on following beliefs:
1. Nutrition is an important part of nursing
2. Fresh, clean air is beneficial to the sick
3. Sick people need occupational and recreational therapy
4. Nurses meet pts personal needs, provide emotional support
5. health and illness
6. Continuing ed is needed for nurses
Dorothea Dix- social worker
appointed by the Union govt to organize women volunteers to provide aid to soldiers
founded the American Red Cross
Lillian Ward in 1893
established the Henry Street Settlement in New York City. training period from 6 months to 3 years.
learning by doing
In an era when women were expected to remain at home and be subservient to men,
nurses' training became a way to obtain further education and employment that could provide independence for women.
1892 New York Young Women's Christian Association
started the Ballard School, which offered a 3 month course in practical nursing.
Richard Bradley in 1907
opened a practical nursing school in Brattleboro, Vermont.
In 1918 group of women opened the
Household Nursing School in Boston- later called Shepard Gill School of Practical Nursing.
nurses worked behind the lines to care for sick and wounded soldiers.
created a demand for nurses in military hospitals, and training programs had to be increased.
Four common goals:
1. promote wellness
2. prevent illness
3. facilitate coping
4. restore health
To accomplish goals, practical nurse takes on the role of
caregiver, educator, collaborator, and manager.
actions taken to improve, maintain, or restore health or prevent illness.
Invasive procedures are
procedures that require entry into the body.
Nurses provide both
physical and emotional care to patients.
The Nurse's goal is to
encourage growth toward wellness so that the patient can once again be self reliant.
without introducing infectious material
Active listening is
a therapeutic technique that helps the patient consider possible solutions when a problem occurs.
A Nursing theory is a
statement about relationships among concepts or facts, based on existing information.
Nursing theorists generally base
their beliefs on the relationships among humans, evnironment, health and nursing.
Evidence based nursing involves
the integration of best research evidence with clnical expertise and patient values to facilitate clinical decision making.
Evidence based practice is using
the best scientific evidence from research to guide decision making and used to help determine best practices.
Virginia Henderson 1955
To help clients gain independence in meeting their needs as quick as possible
Dorothy Johnson 1968
To reduce stress, allowing the client to recover as quickly as possible
Martha Rogers 1970
To achieve maximum levels of wellness
Dorothea Orem 1971
To care for and help clients with various needs attain self care
Betty Neumann 1972
To assist individuals, families, and groups to attain and maintain maximum levels of total wellness through purposeful interventions
Sister Callista Roy 1976
To identify types of demands placed on client and client's adaptation to them
Jean Watson 1979
To promote health, restore clients to health, and prevent illness.
Rosemarie Parse 1987
1. To assist client in interaction with the environment and in co-creating health
2. To care about the client as an individual
Patricia Benner and Judith Wrubel 1989
To care about the client as an individual
Authorized (Acts of Nursing)
those nursing activities made legal through state nurse practice acts
Lateral Expansion of Knowledge is
an extension of the basic core of information learned in the school of practical nursing
Peer Review is
a formal evaluation of performance on the job by other LP/VNs
Specialized Nursing Practice is
a restricted field of nursing in which a person is particularly skilled and has specific knowledge.
Therapeutic Regimens are
regulated plans designed to bring about effective treatment of disease.
one's environment and surroundings.
courses of treatment which include specific steps to be performed in a stated order.
The Practice Acts
generally define activities in which nurses may engage, state the legal requirements and titles for nursing licensure, and establish the education needed for licensure.
Practice Acts are
designed to protect the public, and they define the legal scope of practice.
Nursing Process 1970s and 1980s
organized, deliberate, systemic way to deliver nursing care.
National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service (NAPNES) was
formed to standardize practical nurse education and to establish licensure criteria for graduates.
Diagnosis-related groups (DRG's)
were created by Medicare in 1983 as an attempt to contain health care costs. Hospital receives a set amount of money for a patient who is hospitalized with a certain diagnosis.
Integrated delivery network is
a set of providers and services organized to deliver coordinated care to promote wellness, care for illness, and promote rehabilitation.
network performs these services that are paid a set fee for every patient enrolled in the network each year.
6 levels of care within health care system:
6. continuing care
Health Maintenance Organization (HMOs)
type of group practice, enroll patients for a set per month. One goal to keep pts healthy and out of the hospital.
Preferred Provider Organization (PPOs)
offer a discount on fees in return for a large pool of potential patients.
Vigilant assessment which documentation is
more important than ever in order to catch beginning complications before they become serious.