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Light is fundamentally related to the behavior of ____________.
Light has both _______-like and _______-like properties.
DeBroglie stated that the behavior of electrons were similar to the behavior of _________. He suggested that electrons be considered as ______ confined to the space around the nucleus.
_______________: Form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space.
________: All the forms of electromagnetic radiation (all have the same _____)
- electromagnetic spectrum
________: The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
___________:The number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time (usu. one second). What is the unit (wave/second)?
What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?
___________: The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal. Electromagnetic radiation hits the surface of metal, ejecting electrons and causing an electric current.
_________: minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom. If it is of light, then it is called a _______.
Each particle of light carries a _______ of energy. Einstein called these particles "_________" -- particle of _______ ________ having 0 mass and carrying a quantum of _____.
- electromagnetic radiation
___________: Four bands of light. Narrow beam of emitted light shined shrough a prism, separated into 4 specific colors of the visible spectrum.
Bright line-emission spectrum
______________: continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
What causes something to emit a photon of light? (Emission)
When the electron falls from a higher energy excited state to the ground state, or lower energy excited state.
What happens when light is passed through a prism or diffraction gradient?
The light is separated into specific wavelengths that are part of the line-emission spectrum
What waves refract more?
Higher energy (UV) refract more, lower energy (infrared) refract less
- UV high energy
- Infrared high energy
The energy of a photon is equal to the difference between the _____ ______ _____ _______ and _____ _____ _____ _____.
- initial higher energy state
- final lower energy state
Ground state is when the electron is ______ to the nucleus.
The energy of the electron is _____ when the electron is farther from the nucleus.
How does an electron become excited?
When it absorbs energy
____________:It is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and the velocity of an electron or any particle. Why?
heisenberg's uncertainty principle
to determine the position of an electron, you must hit it. that changes the velocity.
________________: Describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.
__________: specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.
_________(_) or (______) (n= _ to n=_): indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron.
___: the total number of orbitals that exist in a shell (main energy level)
- Prinicpal quantum number (n) or shell
- 1 - 7
_____________________ (_) or (________) or (_____): indicates the shape of the orbital. s: ____, p: _____.
angular momentum quantum number (l) or (spdf) or (sublevel)
________________(_): indicates the orientation of the orbitals around the nucleus
magnetic quantum number (m)
______________: has only two possible values (+1/2 or -1/2), which indicate the 2 fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.
spin quantum number
_____________: electrons assume arrangements that have the lowest possible energies.
ground-state electron configuration.
___________: an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.
Half filled and filled d sublevels have ______ ______. Which two elements (period 4) have this?
Cr and Cu
As frequency is higher, _____ is higher, there is more _____, and ______ is shorter.
______________: an orbital can hold 2 electrons of opposite spin states (no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers)
Pauli's exclusion principle
____________: orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in single occupied orbitals must have the same spin state.