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- an enzyme complex consisting of two components:
- ATPase "knob" (F1 unit)
- membrane-bound, proton-transporting base (F0 unit)*makes most of the ATP that keeps you alive!
- produces 25 of the 29 ATP molecs produced per glucose molecule during cell respiration
the units (F1 & F0) pt. 1
- are connected by a rotor, which spins the F1 unit, and a stator, which interacts with the spinning F1 unit
- protons flowing through the F0 unit causes the the rotor connecting the tow subunits to spin
the units (F1 & F0) pt. 2
As F1 unit spins, its subunits change shape, and catalyze the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
ATP yield from cellular respiration
- HIGH yield!
- most of the "payoff" from glucose oxidation occurs via oxidative phosphorylation;
- ATP synthase produces 25 of the 29 ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule during cell respiration
- total of 29 ATP: 2 from glycolysis, 2 from citric cycle, & 25 from ATP synthase
- when oxygen is the final electron acceptor of electron transport chains(ETC)
- in all eukaryotes and many prokaryotes
- use other electron acceptors(not oxygen) as a final electron acceptor
- in some prokaryotes, especially those in oxygen-poor environments (ex: smelly lake)
oxygen as a final e- acceptor pt. 1
- oxygen is very electronegative - making it the most effective e- acceptor
- large difference between the potential energy of NADH and O2 e- which allows the generation of a large proton-motive force for ATP production
oxygen as a final e- acceptor pt. 2
- cells that do not use oxygen as an e- acceptor cannot generate such a large potential energy difference
- ...they make less ATP than cells that use aerobic respiration
- for us: w/out O2 our system will shut down!
energy & carbon are cells' two fundamental requirements...why?
- they need high-energy e- for generating chemical energy in the form of ATP
- and a source of carbon-containing molecules for synthesizing macromolecules
- includes thousands of different chemical reactions
- has two categories:
- catabolic & anabolic
- large molecules to small molecules
- --- cellular respiration
- *store energy
- make large molecules from small molecules
- ---dehydration synthesis...make nucleic acid from nucleotides
- anabolic steroids = BIG muscle "build up"
processing proteins and fats as fuel (catabolic pathways)
for ATP production, cells first use carbohydrates(glycogen), then fats, and finally proteins
carbohydrates to energy
- glycogen --- glucose
- go through cellular respiration
- fastest way to get ATP
fat stores pyruvate and then it can go into citric cycle
- break down to amino acids --- energy!
- ...eats away at muscle...leaving no body muscle
- (shows in starving children)
anabolic pathways synthesize key molecules
molecules found in carbohydrate metabolism are used to synthesize macromolecules such as RNA, DNA, glycogen, or starch, amino acids, fatty acids, and other cell components